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Applying the “3 Rs”: Training Course in Surgical Techniques

Lab Animal volume 32, pages 4144 (2003) | Download Citation



As the use of surgical procedures in rodents becomes increasingly common in biomedical research, institutions face the challenge of ensuring that personnel are properly trained to perform these procedures. The author describes a microsurgery training course in use at Columbia University.

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    , & Non-vital, prosthetic, and virtual reality models of microsurgical training. Microsurgery 21, 389–393 (2001).

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Author information


  1. Akelina is Program Coordinator/Instructor, Microsurgery Research and Training Laboratory, Columbia University, 622 West 168th Street, PH11-1158, New York, NY 10032.

    • Yelena Akelina DVM, MS


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Correspondence to Yelena Akelina DVM, MS.

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