The biomedical research community has made great progress over the last 30 years in improving strategies to detect and manage pain. Managing experimental and procedural anxiety is a more challenging task, and it depends on the continued practice of distinguishing normal and abnormal states of physiology and behavior in animal subjects1. Common approaches for managing pain and distress can be optimized by implementing a plan to also monitor and manage anxiety and dysphoria.
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Hampshire, V. Altered states part 1: ancillary refinements in managing perioperative distress with canines. Lab Anim 45, 17–18 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1038/laban.907