Short Communication | Published:

Phylogeny of Y-chromosome haplogroup C3b-F1756, an important paternal lineage in Altaic-speaking populations

Journal of Human Genetics volume 62, pages 915918 (2017) | Download Citation

Abstract

In previous studies, a specific paternal lineage with a null value for the Y-chromosome short tandem repeat (Y-STR) marker DYS448 was identified as common among Mongolic- and Turkic-speaking populations. This paternal lineage (temporarily named C3*-DYS448del) was determined to be M217+, M93–, P39–, M48–, M407–, and P53.1–, and its origin and phylogeny remain ambiguous. Here, we analyzed Y-chromosome sequences of 10 male that are related this paternal lineage and redefined it as C3b1a1a1a-F1756 (C3b-F1756). We generated a highly revised phylogenetic tree of haplogroup C3b-F1756, including 21 sub-clades and 360 non-private Y-chromosome polymorphisms. Additionally, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the C3*-DYS448del lineage in eastern Eurasia, including 18 270 samples from 297 populations. Whole Y-chromosome sequences, Y-STR haplotypes, and frequency data were used to generate a distribution map, a network, and age estimations for lineage C3*-DYS448del and its sub-lineages. Considering the historical records of the studied populations, we propose that two major sub-branches of C3b-F1756 may correspond to early expansions of ancestors of modern Mongolic- and Turkic-speaking populations. The large number of newly defined Y-chromosome polymorphisms and the revised phylogenetic tree for C3b-F1756 will assist in investigation of the early history of Altaic-speaking populations in the future.

Access optionsAccess options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

References

  1. 1.

    , , , , , et al. Phylogeography of the Y-chromosome haplogroup C in northern Eurasia. Ann. Hum. Genet. 74, 539–546 (2010).

  2. 2.

    , , , , & The Y-chromosome C3* star-cluster attributed to Genghis Khan’s descendants is present at high frequency in the Kerey clan from Kazakhstan. Hum. Biol. 84, 79–89 (2012).

  3. 3.

    , , , , , et al. The genetic legacy of the Mongols. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 72, 717–721 (2003).

  4. 4.

    , , , , , et al. Y-chromosome diversity in the Kalmyks at the ethnical and tribal levels. J. Hum. Genet. 58, 804–811 (2013).

  5. 5.

    , , , , , et al. Global distribution of Y-chromosome haplogroup C reveals the prehistoric migration routes of African exodus and early settlement in East Asia. J. Hum. Genet. 55, 428–435 (2010).

  6. 6.

    , , , , , et al. Afghan Hindu Kush: where Eurasian sub-continent gene flows converge. PLoS ONE 8, e76748 (2013).

  7. 7.

    , , , , , et al. Mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome variation provides evidence for a recent common ancestry between Native Americans and Indigenous Altaians. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 90, 229–246 (2012).

  8. 8.

    , , , , , et al. A recent bottleneck of Y chromosome diversity coincides with a global change in culture. Genome Res. 25, 459–466 (2015).

  9. 9.

    , , , , , et al. GSA: genome sequence archive. Genomics, Proteom. Bioinform. 15, 14–18 (2017).

  10. 10.

    Members, B. I. G. D. C The BIG Data Center: from deposition to integration to translation. Nucleic Acids Res. 45, D18–D24 (2017).

  11. 11.

    A history of Donghu, Inner Mongolian People's Publishing House, Hohhot, (2007).

Download references

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to all sample donors. LHW was supported by Future Scientists Project of China Scholarship Council. This work was supported by NSFC for Excellent Young Scholar (nos 31222030, 31671297, 31271338, 31401060), MOE Scientific Research Project (113022A), Ministry of Science and Technology of China (MOST) (2016YFC0900300), and Shanghai Shuguang Project (14SG05).

Author information

Author notes

    • Lan-Hai Wei
    •  & Yun-Zhi Huang

    These authors contributed equally to this work.

Affiliations

  1. MOE Key Laboratory of Contemporary Anthropology, Collaborative Innovation Center for Genetics and Development, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, China

    • Lan-Hai Wei
    • , Yun-Zhi Huang
    • , Shi Yan
    • , Shao-Qing Wen
    • , Ling-Xiang Wang
    • , Pan-Xin Du
    • , Da-Li Yao
    • , Shi-Lin Li
    • , Ya-Jun Yang
    • , Li Jin
    •  & Hui Li
  2. Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales, Paris, France

    • Lan-Hai Wei
  3. Center for Historical Geographical Studies of Fudan University, Shanghai, China

    • Da-Li Yao

Authors

  1. Search for Lan-Hai Wei in:

  2. Search for Yun-Zhi Huang in:

  3. Search for Shi Yan in:

  4. Search for Shao-Qing Wen in:

  5. Search for Ling-Xiang Wang in:

  6. Search for Pan-Xin Du in:

  7. Search for Da-Li Yao in:

  8. Search for Shi-Lin Li in:

  9. Search for Ya-Jun Yang in:

  10. Search for Li Jin in:

  11. Search for Hui Li in:

Competing interests

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Hui Li.

Supplementary information

About this article

Publication history

Received

Revised

Accepted

Published

DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/jhg.2017.60

Supplementary Information accompanies the paper on Journal of Human Genetics website (http://www.nature.com/jhg)

Further reading