Hagberg JM, Park JJ, Brown MD. The role of exercise training in the treatment of hypertension. Sports Med 2000; 30: 193–206.
Vina J, Sanchis-Gomar F, Martinez-Bello V, Gomez-Cabrera MC. Exercise acts as a drug; the pharmacological benefits of exercise. Br J Pharmacol 2012; 167: 1–12.
Heffernan KS, Yoon ES, Sharman JE, Davies JE, Shih YT, Chen CH, Fernhall B, Jae SY. Resistance exercise training reduces arterial reservoir pressure in older adults with prehypertension and hypertension. Hypertens Res 2013; 36: 422–427.
Doonan RJ, Mutter A, Egiziano G, Gomez YH, Daskalopoulou SS. Differences in arterial stiffness at rest and after acute exercise between young men and women. Hypertens Res 2013; 36: 226–231.
Vina J, Borras C, Sanchis-Gomar F, Martinez-Bello VE, Olaso-Gonzalez G, Gambini J, Ingles M, Gomez-Cabrera MC. Pharmacological properties of physical exercise in the elderly. Curr Pharm Des 2014; 20: 3019–3029.
Lee IM. Dose-response relation between physical activity and fitness: even a little is good; more is better. JAMA 2007; 297: 2137–2139.
Beevers G, Lip GYH, O’Brien E. The pathophysiology of hypertension. BMJ 2001; 322: 912–916.
Harder DR, Brann L, Halpern W. Altered membrane electrical properties of smooth muscle cells from small cerebral arteries of hypertensive rats. Blood Vessels 1983; 20: 154–160.
Amberg GC, Rossow CF, Navedo MF, Santana LF. NFATc3 regulates Kv2.1 expression in arterial smooth muscle. J Biol Chem 2004; 279: 47326–47334.
Cartin L, Lounsbury KM, Nelson MT. Coupling of Ca2+ to CREB activation and gene expression in intact cerebral arteries from mouse: roles of ryanodine receptors and voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels. Circ Res 2000; 86: 760–767.
Gollasch M, Nelson MT. Voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels in arterial smooth muscle cells. Kidney Blood Press Res 1997; 20: 355–371.
Jaggar JH, Porter VA, Lederer WJ, Nelson MT. Calcium sparks in smooth muscle. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2000; 278: C235–C256.
Roque FR, Briones AM, García-Redondo AB, Galán M, Martínez-Revelles S, Avendaño MS, Cacholfeiro V, Fernances T, Vassallo DV, Oliveira EM, Salaices M. Aerobic exercise reduces oxidative stress and improves vascular changes of small mesenteric and coronary arteries in hypertension. Br J Pharmacol 2013; 168: 686–703.
Hamill OP, Marty A, Neher E, Sakmann B, Sigworth FJ. Improved patch-clamp techniques for high-resolution current recording from cells and cell-free membrane patches. Pflügers Arch 1981; 391: 85–100.
Shi L, Liu X, Li N, Liu B, Liu Y. Aging decreases the contribution of MaxiK channel in regulating vascular tone in mesenteric artery by unparallel downregulation of α- and β1-subunit expression. Mech Ageing Dev 2013; 134: 416–425.
Shi L, Zhang H, Chen Y, Liu Y, Lu N, Zhao T, Zhang L. Chronic exercise normalizes changes of Cav1.2 and KCa1.1 channels in mesenteric arteries from spontaneously hypertensive rats. Br J Pharmacol 2014; 172: 1846–1858.
Negrão CE, Irigoyen MC, Moreira ED, Brum PC, Freire PM, Krieger EM. Effect of exercise training on RSNA, baroreflex control, and blood pressure responsiveness. Am J Physiol 1993; 265: R365–R370.
Véras-Silva AS, Mattos KC, Gava NS, Brum PC, Negrão CE, Krieger EM. Low-intensity exercise training decreases cardiac output and hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Am J Physiol 1997; 273: H2627–H2631.
Krieger EM, Brum PC, Negrão CE. State-of-the-Art lecture: influence of exercise training on neurogenic control of blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Hypertension 1999; 34: 720–723.
Silva GJ, Brum PC, Negrão CE, Krieger EM. Acute and chronic effects of exercise on baroreflexes in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Hypertension 1997; 30: 714–719.
Zamo FS, Barauna VG, Chiavegatto S, Irigoyen MC, Oliveira EM. The renin–angiotensin system is modulated by swimming training depending on the age of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Life Sci 2011; 89: 93–99.
Mehta PK, Griendling KK. Angiotensin II cell signaling: physiological and pathological effects in the cardiovascular system. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2007; 292: C82–C97.
Touyz RM. Intracellular mechanisms involved in vascular remodelling of resistance arteries in hypertension: role of angiotensin II. Exp Physiol 2005; 90: 449–455.
Baumbach GL, Heistad DD. Remodeling of cerebral arterioles in chronic hypertension. Hypertension 1989; 13: 968–972.
Heistad DD, Mayhan WG, Coyle P, Baumbach GL. Impaired dilatation of cerebral arterioles in chronic hypertension. Blood Vessels 1990; 27: 258–262.
Azevedo LF, Brum PC, Mattos KC, Junqueira CM, Rondon MU, Barretto AC, Negrão CE. Effects of losartan combined with exercise training in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Braz J Med Biol Res 2003; 36: 1595–1603.
Sherman DL. Exercise and endothelial function. Coron Artery Dis 2000; 11: 117–122.
da Costa Rebelo RM, Schreckenberg R, Schlüter KD. Adverse cardiac remodelling in spontaneously hypertensive rats: acceleration by high aerobic exercise intensity. J Physiol 2012; 590: 5389–5400.
Sonkusare S, Palade PT, Marsh JD, Telemaque S, Pesic A, Rusch NJ. Vascular calcium channels and high blood pressure: pathophysiology and therapeutic implications. Vascul Pharmacol 2006; 44: 131–142.
Pesic A, Madden JA, Pesic M, Rusch NJ. High blood pressure upregulates arterial L-type Ca2+ channels: is membrane depolarization the signal. Circ Res 2004; 94: e97–e104.
Lozinskaya IM, Cox RH. Effects of age on Ca2+ currents in small mesenteric artery myocytes from Wistar-Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rats. Hypertension 1997; 29: 1329–1336.
Ohya Y, Abe I, Fujii K, Takata Y, Fujishima M. Voltage dependent Ca2+ channels in resistance arteries from spontaneously hypertensive rats. Circ Res 1993; 73: 1090–1099.
Asano M, Masuzawa-Ito K, Matsuda T. Charybdotoxin-sensitive K+ channels regulate the myogenic tone in the resting state of arteries from spontaneously hypertensive rats. Br J Pharmacol 1993; 108: 214–222.
Rusch NJ, Runnells AM. Remission of high blood pressure reverses arterial potassium channel alterations. Hypertension 1994; 23: 941–945.
Bowles DK, Hu Q, Laughlin MH, Sturek M. Exercise training increases L-type calcium current density in coronary smooth muscle. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 1998; 275: H2159–H2169.
Joseph BK, Thakali KM, Moore CL, Rhee SW. Ion channel remodeling in vascular smooth muscle during hypertension: implications for novel therapeutic approaches. Pharmacol Res 2013; 70: 126–138.
Catterall WA, Perez-Reyes E, Snutch TP, Striessnig J. International Union of Pharmacology. XLVIII. Nomenclature and structure-function relationships of voltage-gated calcium channels. Pharmacol Rev 2005; 57: 411–425.
Bannister JP, Adebiyi A, Zhao G, Narayanan D, Thomas CM, Feng JY, Jaggar JH. Smooth muscle cell α2δ-1 subunits are essential for vasoregulation by CaV1.2 channels. Circ Res 2009; 105: 948–955.
Kharade SV, Sonkusare SK, Srivastava AK, Thakali KM, Fletcher TW, Rhee SW, Rusch NJ. The β3 subunit contributes to vascular calcium channel upregulation and hypertension in angiotensin II-infused C57BL/6 mice. Hypertension 2013; 61: 137–142.
Gao T, Chien AJ, Hosey MM. Complexes of the alpha1C and beta subunits generate the necessary signal for membrane targeting of class C L-type calcium channels. J Biol Chem 1999; 274: 2137–2144.
Schleithoff L, Mehrke G, Reutlinger B, Lehmann-Horn F. Genomic structure and functional expression of a human α2/σ calcium channel subunit gene (CACNA2). Genomics 1999; 61: 201–209.