Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.


The fluoride wars rage on

Access options

Rent or buy this article

Get just this article for as long as you need it


Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout


This article is part of Nature Outlook: Oral health, an editorially independent supplement produced with the financial support of third parties. About this content.


  1. US Centers for Disease Prevention and Control. Morb. Mortal. Wkly Rep. 48, 933–940 (1999).

    Google Scholar 

  2. Thylstrup A. J. Dent. Res. 69, 742–750 (1990).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Ten Cate, J. M. J. Dent. Res. 69, 614–619 (1990).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Hellwig, E. & Lennon, Á. M. Caries Res. 38, 258–262 (2004).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Diesendorf, M. Nature 322, 125–129 (1986).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Green, R. et al. JAMA Pediatr. 173, 940–948 (2019).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Bashash, M. et al. Environ. Health. Perspect. 125, 097017 (2017).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Grandjean, P. et al. Risk Anal. (2021).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Slade, G. D., Grider, W. B., Maas, W. R. & Sanders, A. E. J. Dent. Res. 97, 1122–1128 (2018).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Meyer, J., Margaritis, V. & Mendelsohn, A. BMC Oral Health 18, 215 (2018).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. McLaren, L. et al. Public Health 146, 56–64 (2017).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references


Nature Careers


Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing


Quick links