Thank you for visiting nature.com. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain
the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in
Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles
Infrastructure expansion and energy exploitation in the Arctic under China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) could affect climate as well as key ecosystems (see Nature569, 5; 2019). These huge projects risk accelerating carbon release by inducing permafrost thaw (see, for example, M. Turetsky et al. Nature 569, 32–34; 2019). In our view, international monitoring of the situation is necessary so that such changes can be incorporated into holistic climate-change assessments.