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Complex systems

Cooperative network dynamics

Nested, or hierarchically arranged, mutualisms allow ecosystems to support more species than they otherwise would. But in this and other contexts, the growth of such networks could carry a heavy price.

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Figure 1: Nested mutualism reduces competition.
Figure 2: Minimal assembly rules can explain structure.


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Sugihara, G., Ye, H. Cooperative network dynamics. Nature 458, 979–980 (2009).

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