Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting nature.com. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Climate change

Attributing cause and effect

The climate is changing, and so are aspects of the world's physical and biological systems. It is no easy matter to link cause and effect — the latest attack on the problem brings the power of meta-analysis to bear.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Relevant articles

Open Access articles citing this article.

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

$32.00

All prices are NET prices.

Figure 1: Going through the changes.

TOP ROW, LEFT TO RIGHT: T. JACOBSEN/ARCTICPHOTO.COM; P. SCHERMEISTER/NATL GEOGR./GETTY IMAGES; E. YOUNG/CORBIS; P. HAYS/STILL PICTURES BOTTOM ROW: R. TIDMAN/NHPA; BRYAN & CHERRY ALEXANDER PHOTOGRAPHY; F. NICKLIN/MINDEN PICTURES/GETTY IMAGES; J. HYDE/ARCTICPHOTO.COM

References

  1. Rosenzweig, C. et al. Nature 453, 353–357 (2008).

    Article  ADS  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Rosenzweig, C. et al. in Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability (eds Parry, M. L. et al.) 79–131 (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2007).

    Google Scholar 

  3. Hegerl, G. C. et al. in Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis (eds Solomon, S. D. et al.) 663–745 (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2007).

    Google Scholar 

  4. Easterling, D. R. et al. Science, 289, 2068–2074 (2000).

    Article  ADS  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Zhang, X. et al. Nature 448, 461–465 (2007).

    Article  ADS  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Min, S.-K., Zhang, X. & Zwiers, F. Science 320, 518–520 (2008).

    Article  ADS  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Parker, D. E., Legg, T. P. & Folland, C. K. Int. J. Clim. 12, 317–342 (1992).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Rutishauser, T., Luterbacher, J., Jeanneret, F., Pfister, C. & Wanner, H. J. Geophys. Res. 112, G04016 (2007).

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  9. Stone, D. A. & Allen, M. R. Climatic Change 71, 303–318 (2005).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Barnett, T. P. et al. Science 319, 1080–1083 (2008).

    Article  ADS  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Gillett, N. P., Weaver, A. J., Zwiers, F. W. & Flannigan, M. D. Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L18211, doi:10.1029/2004GL020876 (2004).

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  12. Meehl, G. A. et al. in Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis (eds Solomon, S. D. et al.) 747–845 (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2007).

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Zwiers, F., Hegerl, G. Attributing cause and effect. Nature 453, 296–297 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1038/453296a

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/453296a

This article is cited by

Search

Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing