Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.


Survival of the fitters

A Correction to this article was published on 05 December 2002

Our immune system's ability to fight viruses inside our cells relies on viral protein fragments being displayed on the cell surface. The enzyme needed for the last step in this presentation process has now been discovered.

Your institute does not have access to this article

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.

Figure 1: Informing the immune system.


  1. Serwold, T. et al. Nature 419, 480–483 (2002).

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Falk, K., Rotzschke, O. & Rammensee, H.-G Nature 348, 248–251 (1990).

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Beninga, J., Rock, K. L. & Goldberg, A. L. J. Biol. Chem. 273, 18734–18742 (1998).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Stoltze, L. et al. Nature Immunol. 1, 413–418 (2000).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Brouwenstijn, N., Serwold, T. & Shastri, N. Immunity 15, 95–104 (2001).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Fruci, D., Niedermann, G., Butler, R. H. & van Endert, P. M. Immunity 15, 467–476 (2001).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Hans-Georg Rammensee.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Rammensee, HG. Survival of the fitters. Nature 419, 443–445 (2002).

Download citation

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:

Further reading


Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing