Macrophage and T cell-line tropisms of HIV-1 are determined by specific regions of the envelope gp!20 gene

Abstract

STRAINS of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) display a high degree of biological heterogeneity which may be linked to certain clinical manifestation of AIDS. They vary in their ability to infect different cell types1–3, to replicate rapidly and to high titre in culture4–6, to down-modulate the CD4 receptor7,8, and to cause cytopathic changes in infected cells7,9–11. Some of these in vitro properties correlate with pathogenicity of the virus in vivo11,12. To map the viral determinants of the cellular host range of HIV-1, recombinant viruses were generated between biologically active molecular clones of HIV-1 isolates showing differences in infection of primary peripheral blood macrophages and established T-cell lines. We report here that a specific region of the envelope gp120 gene representing 159 amino-acid residues of glycoprotein gp120 seems to determine macrophage tropism, whereas an overlapping region representing 321 amino-acid residues determines T cell-line tropism. These studies provide a basis for relating functional domains of the HIV-1 env gene to pathogenic potential.

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Shioda, T., Levy, J. & Cheng-Mayer, C. Macrophage and T cell-line tropisms of HIV-1 are determined by specific regions of the envelope gp!20 gene. Nature 349, 167–169 (1991). https://doi.org/10.1038/349167a0

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