SIMIAN immunodeficiency viruses have been isolated from four species of monkey, the 'captive' macaque1 and mangabey2–4 and the 'feral' African green monkey5 and mandrill6. While none of these viruses is a replica of HIV-1, the macaque7 and mangabey8 viruses represent correct genetic models for HIV-2, possessing exactly the same complement of genes. Recently a lentivirus has been identified in two wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in Gabon, west equatorial Africa, and isolated from one of them9. This virus is referred to as SIVCPZ. Sera from these animals cross reacted with all the HIV-1 proteins including the envelope glycoproteins. Here, we describe the molecular cloning and sequencing of an infectious proviral clone of SIVCPZ. The overall genetic organization was the same as that of HIV-1, but phylogenetic analysis revealed that the sequence was more divergent than any HIV-1 sequence reported so far. The vpu gene product, found only in the type 1 viruses, was particularly different (64% divergent to HIV-1BRU) suggesting that the SIVCPZ represents a distinct subtype. These findings indicate that there is a larger pool of simian lentiviruses than previously suspected and revives debate as to the origins of HIV-1.
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $3.90 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Rent or Buy article
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Daniel, M. D. et al. Science 228, 1201–1204 (1985).
Lowenstine, L. J. et al. Int. J. Cancer 38, 563–574 (1986).
Murphey-Corb, M. et al. Nature 321, 435–437 (1986).
Fultz, P. N. et al. Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 83, 5286–5290 (1986).
Ohta, Y. et al. Int. J. Cancer 41, 115–122 (1988).
Tsujimoto, H. et al. J. Virol. 62, 4044–4050 (1989).
Chakrabarti, L. et al. Nature 328, 543–547 (1987).
Hirsch, V. M., Olmsted, R. A., Murphey-Corb, M., Purcell, R. H. & Johnson, P. R. Nature 339, 389–392 (1989).
Peeters, M. et al. AIDS 3, 625–630 (1989).
Cornell, C. et al. Bio Techniques 5, 342–348 (1987).
Wain-Hobson, S., Sonigo, P., Danos, O., Cole, S. & Mizon, M. Cell 40, 9–17 (1985).
Alizon, M., Wain-Hobson, S., Montagnier, L. & Sonigo, P. Cell 46, 63–74 (1986).
Guyader, M. et al. Nature 326, 662–669 (1987).
Emerman, M., Guyader, M., Montagnier, L., Baltimore, D. & Muesing, M. EMBO J. 6, 3755–3760 (1987).
Malim, M. H. et al. Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86, 8222–8226 (1989).
Klimkait, T., Strebel, K., Hoggan, M. D., Martin, M. A. & Orenstein, J. M. J. Virol. 64, 621–629 (1990).
Hammerschmidt, W., Sugden, B. & Baichwal, V. R. J. Virol. 63, 2469–2475 (1989).
Gurgo, C. et al. Virology 164, 531–536 (1988).
Smith, R. F. & Smith, T. F. Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87, 118–122 (1990).
Smith, T. F., Srinivasan, A., Schochetman, G., Marcus, M. & Myers, G. Nature 333, 573–575 (1988).
Wilbur, W. J. & Lipman, D. J. Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 80, 726–730 (1983).
Huet, T., Dazza, M. C., Brun-Vézinet, F., Roelants, G. E. & Wain-Hobson, S. AIDS 3, 707–715 (1989).
Fukasawa, M. et al. Nature 333, 457–461 (1988).
Tsujimoto, H. et al. Nature 341, 539–541 (1989).
Chen, C. & Okayama, H. Molec. cell. Biol. 7, 2745–2752 (1987).
Staden, R. Nucleic Acids Res. 10, 4731–4751 (1982).
Saiki, R. K. et al. Science 239, 487–491 (1988).
Kyte, J. & Doolittle, R. J. molec. Biol. 157, 105–132 (1982).
Myers, G. et al. Human Retroviruses and AIDS (Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, 1989).
Felsenstein, J. A. Rev. Genet. 22, 521–565 (1988).
About this article
Cite this article
Huet, T., Cheynier, R., Meyerhans, A. et al. Genetic organization of a chimpanzee lentivirus related to HIV-1. Nature 345, 356–359 (1990). https://doi.org/10.1038/345356a0
Nature Reviews Genetics (2019)
Circulation of multiple subtypes (A, G and CRFs 02_AG) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in selected districts of Punjab province, Pakistan
Archives of Virology (2019)
Archives of Virology (2017)
Folia Microbiologica (2017)