Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Electoral procedures: Preference and paradox

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Access options

Rent or buy this article

Get just this article for as long as you need it


Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout


  1. Black, D. The Theory of Committees and Elections (Cambridge University Press, 1958).

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  2. Condorcet, M. Essai sur l'Application de l'Analyse à la Probabilité des Décisions Rendues à la Pluralité des Voix (Paris, 1785).

    Google Scholar 

  3. Borda, J-C. (1781); translation in Isis 44, 42 (1953).

    Google Scholar 

  4. Arrow, K.J. Social Choice and Individual Values 2nd edn (Wiley, New York, 1963).

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  5. Riker, W.H. Am. pol. Sci. Rev. 55, 900 (1961).

    Google Scholar 

  6. Niemi, R.G. & Riker, W.H. Sci. Am. 234(2), 21 (1976).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Farquharson, R. Theory of Voting (Yale University Press, 1969).

    Google Scholar 

  8. Fishburn, P.C. Am. pol. Sci. Rev. 48, 537 (1974).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Fishburn, P.C. Discrete appl. Math. 4, 119 (1982).

    Article  MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  10. May, R.M. Behav. Sci. 16, 143 (1971).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Davidson, R.R. & Odeh, R.E. J. Comb. Theory A13, 162 (1972).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Fishburn, P.C. The Theory of Social Choice (Princeton University Press, 1973).

    MATH  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

May, R. Electoral procedures: Preference and paradox. Nature 303, 16–17 (1983).

Download citation

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:

This article is cited by


Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing