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In vitro flowering of embryoids derived from mature root callus of ginseng (Panax ginseng)


Seedlings of various crops pass through a juvenile phase during which they cannot be induced to flower1. The delay in flowering caused by a long juvenile phase may last for years and is a major problem in breeding such crops. In field conditions, ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) usually flowers in the third year after germination2, and breeding programmes have been hindered by the long time needed for genetic analysis. We report here a repeatable precocious flowering of embryoids derived from mature ginseng root callus cultured in a chemically defined medium. These embryoids produce flowers and fertile pollen without establishing normal seedlings.

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