Review Article | Published:

Mammals, resources and reproductive strategies

Abstract

The breeding systems of mammalian species are strongly influenced by the density and dispersion of their populations. These in turn are affected by variations in the distribution of resources. Through quantitative comparisons, it is possible to trace evolutionary relationships between feeding behaviour, population dispersion, breeding systems and morphology.

Access optionsAccess options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

References

  1. 1

    Thayer, C. H. Concealing-Coloration in the Animal Kingdom (Macmillan, New York, 1909).

  2. 2

    Wolpoff, M. H. in Paleoanthropology: Morphology and Ecology (ed. Tuttle, R.) (Mouton, The Hague, 1976).

  3. 3

    Wolpoff, M. H. Am. J. phys. Anthrop. 45, 497–509 (1976).

  4. 4

    Clutton-Brock, T. H., Harvey, P. H. & Rudder, B. Nature 269, 797–800 (1977).

  5. 5

    Atz, J. W. in Development and Evolution of Behavior (eds Aronson, L. R., Tobach, E., Lehrman, D. S. & Rosenblatt, J. S.) (Freeman, San Francisco, 1970).

  6. 6

    Clutton-Brock, T. H. & Harvey, P. H. in Primate Ecology: Studies of Feeding and Ranging Behaviour in Lemurs, Monkeys and Apes (ed. Clutton-Brock, T. H.) (Academic, London, 1977).

  7. 7

    Aristotle The Politics (Penguin, Harmondsworth, 1962).

  8. 8

    Lack, D. Ecological Adaptations for Breeding in Birds. (Methuen, London, 1968).

  9. 9

    Bianka, E. R. Am. Nat. 104, 592–597 (1970).

  10. 10

    Wilson, E. O. Sociobiology, the New Synthesis. (Belknap, Harvard, 1975).

  11. 11

    Kleiber, M. The Fire of Life: An Introduction to Animal Energetics (Wiley, New York, 1961).

  12. 12

    McMahon, T. Science 179, 1201–1204 (1973).

  13. 13

    Schmidt-Nielsen, K. J. exp. Zool. 194, 287–307 (1975).

  14. 14

    Taylor, C. R., Schmidt-Nielsen, K. & Raab, J. L. Am. J. Physiol. 219, 1104–1107 (1970).

  15. 15

    Bell, R. H. V. Sci. Am. 225, 86–93 (1971).

  16. 16

    Ricklefs, R. E. Ecology. (Nelson, London, 1973).

  17. 17

    Krebs, C. J. Ecology (Harper and Row, New York, 1972).

  18. 18

    Coe, M. J., Cumming, D. H. & Phillipson, J. Oecologia 22, 341–354 (1976).

  19. 19

    Janzen, D. H. Biotropica 6, 69–103 (1974).

  20. 20

    Gartlan, S. J., McKey, D. L. & Waterman, P. G. in Proc. VI Int. Primat. Cong. (Academic, London, in the press).

  21. 21

    Simpson, G. G. Syst. Zool. 13, 57–73 (1969).

  22. 22

    Whittaker, R. H. Communities and Ecosystems (Macmillan, New York, 1970).

  23. 23

    Sinclair, A. R. E. The African Buffalo: A Study of Resource Limitation of Populations. (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1977.)

  24. 24

    Jarman, P. J. Behaviour 48, 215–267 (1974).

  25. 25

    Lamprey, H. E. Afr. Widl. J. 2, 1–46 (1964).

  26. 26

    Schaller, G. B. The Serengeti Lion (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1972.)

  27. 27

    Odum, E. P. Ecology (Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, 1963).

  28. 28

    McNab, B. N. Am. Nat. 97, 133–140 (1963).

  29. 29

    Milton, K. & May, M. L. Nature 259, 459–462 (1976).

  30. 30

    Clutton-Brock, T. H. & Harvey, P. H. J. Zool. 183, 1–39 (1977).

  31. 31

    Schoener, T. W. Ecology 49, 123–141 (1968).

  32. 32

    Altmann, S. A. Amer. Zool. 14, 221–248 (1974).

  33. 33

    Clutton-Brock, T. H. Nature 250, 539–542 (1974).

  34. 34

    Brown, J. L. Wilson Bull. 76, 160–169 (1964).

  35. 35

    Alexander, R. D. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 5, 325–383 (1974).

  36. 36

    Wrangham, R. W. in Primate Ecology: Studies of Feeding and Ranging Behaviour in Lemurs, Monkeys and Apes (ed. Clutton-Brock, T. H.) (Academic, London, 1977).

  37. 37

    Owen-Smith, N. Q. Rev. Biol. 52, 1–38 (1977).

  38. 38

    Laurie, A. & Oliver, R. New Scient. 75, 658–660 (1977).

  39. 39

    Kaurmann, J. H. Amer. Zool. 14, 51–62 (1974).

  40. 40

    Eisenberg, J. F. in Phylogeny of Primates (eds Luckett, W. P. & Szalay, F. S.) (Plenum, New York, 1977).

  41. 41

    Crook, J. H. in Sexual Selection and the Descent of Man, 1871–1971 (ed. Campbell, B.) (Aldine, Chicago, 1972).

  42. 42

    Charles-Dominique, P. in Phytogeny of Primates (eds Luckett, W. P. & Szalay, F. S.) (Plenum, New York, 1977).

  43. 43

    Charles-Dominique, P. Field Studies of Nocturnal Primates (Duckworth, London, 1976).

  44. 44

    Kruuk, H. The Spotted Hyena (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1972).

  45. 45

    Crook, J. H., Ellis, J. D. & Goss-Custard, J. D. Anim. Behav. 24, 261–274 (1976).

  46. 46

    Hamilton, W. D. J. theor. Biol. 7, 1–52 (1964).

  47. 47

    Bateman, P. J. Heredity 2, 349–368 (1948).

  48. 48

    Trivers, R. L. in Sexual Selection and the Descent of Man, 1871–1971 (ed. Campbell, B.) (Aldine, Chicago, 1972).

  49. 49

    Bertram, B. C. R. in Growing Points in Ethology (eds Bateson, P. P. G. & Hinde, R. A.) (Cambridge University Press, London, 1976).

  50. 50

    Maynard Smith, J. Anim. Behav. 25, 1–9 (1977).

  51. 51

    Verner, J. Evolution 18, 251–261 (1964).

  52. 52

    Orians, G. H. Am. Nat. 103, 589–603 (1969).

  53. 53

    Verner, J. & Willson, M. F. Ecology 47, 143–147 (1966).

  54. 54

    Emlen, S. T. & Oring, L. W. Science 197, 215–223 (1977).

  55. 55

    Armitage, K. B. Anim. Behav. 10, 319–331 (1962).

  56. 56

    Armitage, K. B. Anim. Behav. 13, 59–68 (1965).

  57. 57

    Armitage, K. B. J. Zool. 172, 233–246 (1974).

  58. 58

    Downhower, J. F. & Armitage, K. B. Am. Nat. 105, 355–370 (1971).

  59. 59

    Anderson, D. C., Armitage, K. B. & Hoffmann, R. S. Ecology 57, 552–560 (1976).

  60. 60

    Kruuk, H. in Function and Evolution of Behaviour (eds Barends, G., Beer, C. & Manning, A.) (Clarendon, Oxford, 1975).

  61. 61

    Carey, M. & Nolan, V. Jr Science 190, 1296–1297 (1975).

  62. 62

    Wrangham, R. W. in Sociobiology and the Social Sciences (ed. DeVore, I.) (Aldine, Chicago, in the press).

  63. 63

    Bartholomew, G. A. Evolution 24, 546–559 (1970).

  64. 64

    Stirling, I. Procès-Verbaux Réunions Conseil Int. Exploration Mer 165, 205–212 (1975).

  65. 65

    Ralls, K. Am. Nat. 111, 917–938 (1977).

  66. 66

    Kleiman, D. G. Q. Rev. Biol. 52, 36–69 (1977).

  67. 67

    Clutton-Brock, T. H. & Harvey, P. H. in Growing Points in Ethology (eds Bateson, P. P. G. & Hinde, R. A.) (Cambridge University Press, London, 1976).

  68. 68

    Spencer-Booth, Y. Adv. Study. Behav. 3, 120–194 (1970).

  69. 69

    Kleiman, D. G. & Eisenberg, J. F. Anim. Behav. 21, 637–659 (1973).

  70. 70

    Darwin, C. The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex (John Murray, London, 1871).

  71. 71

    Brown, J. L. The Evolution of Behavior (Norton, New York, 1975).

  72. 72

    Harvey, P. H., Kavanagh, M. & Clutton-Brock, T. H. J. Zool. (in the press).

  73. 73

    Selander, R. K. Condor 68, 113–151 (1966).

  74. 74

    Selander, R. K. in Sexual Selection and the Descent of Man, 1871–1971 (ed. Campbell, B.) (Aldine, Chicago, 1972).

  75. 75

    Brown, J. H. & Lasiewski, R. C. Ecology 53, 939–943 (1972).

  76. 76

    Bertram, B. C. R. in Serengeti Ecosystem Dynamics (eds Sinclair, A. R. E. & Norton-Griffiths, M.) (Chicago University Press, Chicago, in the press).

  77. 77

    Schoener, T. W. Am. Nat. 103, 277–313 (1969).

  78. 78

    Ralls, K. Wilson Bull. 88, 149–150 (1976).

  79. 79

    Wiley, R. Q. Rev. Biol. 49, 201–227 (1974).

  80. 80

    Wiley, R. Am. Nat. 108, 705–709 (1974).

  81. 81

    Ralls, K. Q. Rev. Biol. 51, 245–276 (1976).

  82. 82

    Wickler, W. in Primate Ethology (ed. Morris, D.) (Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London, 1967).

  83. 83

    Darwin, C. Nature 15, 18–19 (1876).

  84. 84

    Cox, C. R. & LeBoeuf, B. J. Am. Nat. 111, 317–335 (1977).

  85. 85

    Geist, V. Am. Zool. 14, 205–220 (1977).

  86. 86

    Whitehead, G. K. Deer of the World (Constable, London, 1972).

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Further reading

Comments

By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.