Octopamine

Abstract

The sympathomimetic amine octopamine (p-hydroxyphenylethanolamine) has the properties of a neurotransmitter in many invertebrate species. In mammals it seems to be a cotransmitter with noradrenaline.

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

References

  1. 1

    Erspamer, V., and Boretti, G., Archs Int. Pharmacodyn. Ther., 88, 296–332 (1951).

  2. 2

    Armstrong, M. D., Shaw, K. N. F., and Wall, P. E., J. biol. Chem., 218, 293–303 (1956).

  3. 3

    Kakimoto, Y., and Armstrong, M. D., J. biol. Chem., 237, 422–427 (1962).

  4. 4

    Fischer, J., Musacchio, J., Kopin, I. J., and Axelrod, J., Life Sci., 3, 413–419 (1964).

  5. 5

    Kopin, I. J., Fischer, J. E., Musacchio, J. M., Horst, W. D., and Weise, V. K., J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 147, 186–193 (1965).

  6. 6

    Friedman, S., and Kaufman, S., J. biol. Chem., 240, 552–554 (1965).

  7. 7

    Potter, L. T., and Axelrod, J., J. Pharmac. exp. Ther., 142, 291–298 (1963).

  8. 8

    Pisano, J. J., Creveling, C. R., and Udenfriend, S., Biochim. biophys. Acta, 43 566–568 (1960).

  9. 9

    Molinoff, P. B., Landsberg, L., and Axelrod, J., J. Pharmac. exp. Ther., 179, 253–261 (1969).

  10. 10

    Axelrod, J., J. biol. Chem., 237, 1657–1660 (1962).

  11. 11

    Harmar, A. J., and Horn, A. S., J. Neurochem, 26, 987–993 (1976).

  12. 12

    Saavedra, J. M., Analyt. Biochem., 59, 628–633 (1974).

  13. 13

    Saavedra, J. M., Brownstein, M., and Axelrod, J., J. Pharmac. exp. Ther., 186 508–515 (1973).

  14. 14

    Coyle, J. T., and Henry, D., J. Neurochem., 21, 61–67 (1973).

  15. 15

    Snyder, S. H., Baldessarini, R. J., and Axelrod, J., J. Pharmac. exp. Ther., 153 544–549 (1966).

  16. 16

    Saavedra, J. M., and Axelrod, J., J. Pharmac. exp. Ther., 182, 363–369 (1972).

  17. 17

    Saavedra, J. M., J. Neurochem., 33, 211–216 (1974).

  18. 18

    Tallman, J. F., Saavedra, J. M., Axelrod, J., J. Neurochem., 27, 465–469 (1976).

  19. 19

    Molinoff, P. B., and Axelrod, J., Science, 164, 428–429 (1969).

  20. 20

    Molinoff, P. B., and Axelrod, J., J. Neurochem., 19, 157–163 (1972).

  21. 21

    Saavedra, J. M., Coyle, J. T., and Axelrod, J., J. Neurochem., 23, 511–515 (1974).

  22. 22

    Molinoff, P. B., and Buch, S. H. in Trace Amines in the Brain (edit. by Sandler M., and Usdin, E.), 131–160 (Raven, New York, 1976).

  23. 23

    Armstrong, M. D., McMillan, A., Shaw, K. N. F., Biochim. biophys. Acta, 25 422–423 (1957).

  24. 24

    Brandau, K., and Axelrod, J., Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Arch. Pharmak., 273 123–133 (1972).

  25. 25

    Carlsson, A., and Waldeck, B., Acta pharmac. toxic. 20, 371–374 (1963).

  26. 26

    Axelrod, J., Inscoe, J. K., and Daly, J., J. Pharmac. exp. Ther., 149, 16–22 (1965).

  27. 27

    Brandau, K., and Axelrod, J., in Frontiers in Catecholamine Research (edit. by Usdin, E., and Snyder, S. H.), 129–131 (Pergamon, New York, 1973).

  28. 28

    Jaim-Etchieverry, G., and Zieher, L. M., J. Neurochem., 25, 915–917 (1975).

  29. 29

    Baldessarini, R. J., and Vogt, M., J. Neurochem., 19, 755–761 (1972).

  30. 30

    Baldessarini, R. J., J. Neurochem., 18, 2509–2518 (1971).

  31. 31

    Lands, A. M., and Grant, J. E., J. Pharmac. exp. Ther., 106, 341–345 (1952).

  32. 32

    Fischer, J. E., and Baldessarini, R. J., Lancet, ii, 75–80 (1971).

  33. 33

    Floyd, K. F., Davidson, L., Gall, D. G., and McCling, H. J., Proc. Fifth Annual Meeting for Society for Neurosciences, 394 (Society of Neuroscience, Bethesda, Md, 1975).

  34. 34

    Juorio, A. V., and Molinoff, P. B., J. Neurochem., 22, 271–280 (1974).

  35. 35

    Saavedra, J. M., Brownstein, M. J., Carpenter, D. O., and Axelrod, J., Science, 185, 364–365 (1974).

  36. 36

    Brownstein, M. J., Saavedra, J. M., Axelrod, J., Zeman, G. H., and Carpenter, D. O., Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 71, 4662–4665 (1974).

  37. 37

    Barker, D. L., Molinoff, P. B., and Kravitz, E. A., Nature new Biol., 236, 61–63 (1972).

  38. 38

    Wallace, B. G., Talamo, B. R., Evans, P. D., and Kravitz, E. A., Brain Res., 74, 349–355 (1974).

  39. 39

    Evans, P. D., Talamo, B. R., and Kravitz, E. A., Brain Res., 90, 340–347 (1975).

  40. 40

    Robertson, H. A., and Steele, J. E., J. Physiol., Lond., 237, 34P–35P (1974).

  41. 41

    Hoyle, G., and Barker, D. L., J. exp. Zool., 193, 433–439 (1975).

  42. 42

    Robertson, H. A., Experientia, 31, 1006–1008 (1975).

  43. 43

    Robertson, H. A., and Carlsson, A. D., J. exp. Zool., 195, 159–164 (1976).

  44. 44

    Nathanson, J. A., and Greengard, P., Science, 180, 308–310 (1973).

  45. 45

    Robertson, H. A., and Steele, J. E., J. Neurochem., 19, 1603–1606 (1972).

  46. 46

    Carlsson, A. D., J. exp. Biol., 49, 195–199 (1968).

  47. 47

    Hoyle, G., J. exp. Zool., 193, 425–431 (1975).

  48. 48

    Sullivan, R. E., and Barker, D. L., Proc. Fifth Annual meeting of the Society of Neurosciences, 394 (Society of Neuroscience, Bethesda, Md, 1975).

  49. 49

    Carpenter, D. O., and Gaubatz, G. L., Nature, 252, 483–485 (1974).

  50. 50

    Levitan, I. B., and Barondes, S. H., Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 71, 1145–1148 (1974).

  51. 51

    Levitan, I. B., Madsen, C. J., and Barondes, S. H., J. Neurobiol., 5, 511–525 (1974).

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Axelrod, J., Saavedra, J. Octopamine. Nature 265, 501–504 (1977). https://doi.org/10.1038/265501a0

Download citation

Further reading

Comments

By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.