Letter | Published:

Stimulation by cyclic GMP of lymphocytes mediated by soluble factor released from adherent cells

Naturevolume 256pages418419 (1975) | Download Citation



THE activation of lymphocytes by mitogens is a complex phenomenon which can be subdivided into reactions occurring on the surface of the cells1 followed by a chain of intracellular reactions caused by biochemical alterations in the membrane2. With respect to the mediation of the mitogenic signal from the membrane to the nucleus it has been claimed that 3′,5′ – cyclic GMP either directly fulfils a role as a ‘second messenger’3, or that a 3′,5′–cyclic GMP-dependent step is involved in the chain of intracellular reactions culminating in cell mitosis3,4. These assumptions are based on the facts that after the addition of lectins to peripheral white blood cells depleted of granulocytes and monocytes, an increased intracellular concentration of 3′,5′–cyclic GMP was detected3 and that 3′,5′–cyclic GMP added exogenously activated DNA synthesis in spleen and thymus cells in vitro4–6. The prerequisites for the validity of the above mentioned hypothesis, however, are that the 3′,5′–cyclic GMP levels are indeed increased in all cells entering the mitotic phase and that 3′,5′–cyclic GMP added exogenously acts directly on the lymphocytes, without the participation of other cells.

Access optionsAccess options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.


  1. 1

    Greaves, M. F., et al., Transplantn Rev., 11, 87 (1972).

  2. 2

    Singer, S. J., Adv. Immun., 19, 34 (1974).

  3. 3

    Hadden, J. W., Hadden, E. M., Haddox, M. K., and Goldberg, N. D., Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 69, 3024 (1972).

  4. 4

    Diamantstein, T., and Ulmer, A., Immunology, 28, 113 (1975).

  5. 5

    Weinstein, Y., Chambers, D. A., Bourne, H. R., and Melmon, K. L., Nature, 251, 352 (1974).

  6. 6

    Watson, J., J. exp. Med., 141, 97 (1975).

  7. 7

    Gery, I., and Waksman, B. H., J. exp. Med., 136, 143 (1972).

  8. 8

    Diamantstein, T., and Ulmer, A., Immun. Commun. 4, 57 (1975).

  9. 9

    Calderon, J., and Unanue, E. R., Nature, 253, 359 (1975).

  10. 10

    Goldberg, N. D., O'Dea, R. F., and Haddox, M. K., Adv. Cyclic Nucleotide Res., 3, 156 (1973).

  11. 11

    Alford, R. H., J. Immun., 104, 698 (1970).

  12. 12

    Diamantstein, T., and Ulmer, A., Immunology, 28, 121 (1975).

  13. 13

    Diamanstein, T., Rühl, H., Vogt, W., and Bochert, G., Eur. J. Immun., 3, 488 (1973).

Download references

Author information


  1. Immunological Research Unit, Klinikum Steglitz, Freie Universität, Hindenburgdamm 30, D-1, Berlin, 45, Germany

    •  & ARTUR ULMER


  1. Search for TIBOR DIAMANTSTEIN in:

  2. Search for ARTUR ULMER in:

About this article

Publication history



Issue Date



Further reading


By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.