Letter | Published:

Role of macrophages in in vitro induction of T-helper cells

Naturevolume 254pages352354 (1975) | Download Citation


  • An Erratum to this article was published on 26 June 1975


MACROPHAGES are of importance in the initiation of immune responses, both in vitro1 and in vivo1,2. Both immune responses involving B cells, such as antibody production3–6, and those involving T cells, such as the lymphocyte transformation7, the mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) (refs 8 and 9), and the induction of cytotoxic responses10 require macrophages. Various concepts of macrophage function in immune induction have been suggested. The simplest concept proposed is that macrophages augment lymphocyte survival in vitro11. Although this is one of their functions in vitro, it does not explain fully their role in vitro and especially in vivo. In the induction of antibody responses, two functions were defined, the breakdown of antigens to the appropriate size5 and the presentation of antigen to B cells in an optimally immunogenic manner12. Because the T-cell reactions already studied, such as the MLR, involve ill-defined antigens, the surfaces of living cells, even less is known about the mechanisms of macrophage function in the stimulation of T cells than of B cells.

Access optionsAccess options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.


  1. 1

    Mononuclear Phagocytes, Second Conference (edit. by Van Furth, R), (Blackwell, Oxford, 1975).

  2. 2

    Friedman, H., and Sabet, T. Y., Immunology, 18, 883–895 (1970).

  3. 3

    Mosier, D. E., Science 158, 1573–1575 (1967).

  4. 4

    Hartmann, K., Dutton, R. W., McCarthy, M. M., and Mishell, R. I., Cell. Immun., 1, 182–189 (1970).

  5. 5

    Shortman, K., Diener, E., Russel, R. P., and Armstrong, W. D., J. exp. Med., 131, 461–482 (1970).

  6. 6

    Feldmann, M., and Palmer, J., Immunology, 21, 685–699 (1971).

  7. 7

    Oppenheim, J. J., Leventhal, B. G., and Hersh, E. M., J. Immun., 101, 262–270 (1968).

  8. 8

    Hersh, E. M., and Harris, J. E., J. Immun., 100, 1184–1194 (1968).

  9. 9

    Jones, A. L., Clin. exp. Immun., 8, 927–939 (1971).

  10. 10

    Wagner, H., Feldmann, M., Boyle, W., and Schrader, J. W., J. exp. Med., 136, 331–343 (1972).

  11. 11

    Chen, Ch., and Hirsch, J. G., J. exp. Med., 136, 604–617 (1972).

  12. 12

    Feldmann, M., and Nossal, G. J. V., Transplant. Rev., 13, 3–34 (1972).

  13. 13

    Kontianen, S., and Feldmann, M., Nature new Biol., 245, 285–286 (1973).

  14. 14

    Greaves, M. F., and Brown, G., J. Immun., 112, 420–423 (1974).

  15. 15

    Rosenthal, A. S., and Shevach, E. M., J. exp. Med., 138, 1194–1212 (1973).

  16. 16

    Katz, D. H., and Unanue, E. R., J. exp. Med., 137, 967–990 (1973).

  17. 17

    Kapp, J. A., Pierce, C. W., and Benacerraf, B., J. exp. Med., 138, 1121–1132 (1973).

  18. 18

    Bach, F. H., Alter, B. J., Solliday, S., Foschke, D. C., and Janis, M., Cell. Immun. 1, 219 (1970).

  19. 19

    Dutton, R. W., McCarthy, M. M., Mishell, R. I., and Raidt, D. J., Cell. Immun., 1, 196–206 (1970).

  20. 20

    Hoffmann, M., and Dutton, R. W., Science, 172, 1047–1048 (1971).

  21. 21

    Waldman, S. R., and Gottlieb, A. A., Cell. Immun., 9, 142–156 (1973).

  22. 22

    Katz, D. H., Hamaoka, T., and Benacerraf, B., J. exp. Med., 137, 1405–1418 (1973).

  23. 23

    Zinkernagel, R. M., and Doherty, P. C., Nature, 248, 701–702 (1974).

Download references

Author information

Author notes


    Present address: Institut for Microbiology of University of Basel, Peterplatz 10, CH—4000, Basel, Switzerland


  1. Imperial Cancer Research Fund, Tumour Immunology Unit, Department of Zoology, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1, UK



  1. Search for PETER ERB in:

  2. Search for MARC FELDMANN in:

About this article

Publication history


Issue Date



Further reading


By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.