Letter | Published:

Electron spectroscopic observations on extreme pressure lubrication

Naturevolume 254pages130131 (1975) | Download Citation

Subjects

Abstract

COMPOUNDS of sulphur, phosphorus, zinc and chlorine are added to lubricating oils to control wear under arduous conditions by forming films on rubbing surfaces. The films are extremely thin and frequently amorphous. Only rarely has it been possible to identify compounds present although electron probe microanalysis can show the distribution of elements. We here present new information, obtained from electron spectroscopic measurements, mainly concerning the binding energies of photoelectrons (ejected with AlKα X rays) the magnitudes of which are characteristic of particular atoms and electrons, and which may therefore be used for analytical purposes. We also made some observations of the kinetic energies of Auger electrons, which are also well defined and of analytical value. These energies depend on the charge on the atom, so that for states of combination of an element where the charges on the atoms are sufficiently different, valuable ‘chemical shifts’ are observed; sulphur is a favourable case with a shift of about 6 eV from sulphide to sulphate. Only electrons that escape without collision are of value, so the analysed depth was limited to a few tens of Å, the region of interest in lubrication.

Access optionsAccess options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

References

  1. 1

    Allum, K. G., and Forbes, E. S., J. Inst. Petrol., 53, 174 (1967).

  2. 2

    Reid, A. J. D., and Forbes, E. S., ASLE Trans., 16, 50 (1973).

  3. 3

    Francis, S. A., and Ellison, A. H., J. chem. Engng Data, 6, 83 (1961).

  4. 4

    Feng, I. M., Perilstein, W. L., and Adams, M. R., ASLE Trans., 6, 60 (1963).

  5. 5

    Brazier, A. D., and Elliott, J. S., J. Inst. Petrol., 53, 63 (1967).

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

  1. Shell Research Ltd, Thornton Research Centre, PO Box 1, Chester, CH1 3SH, UK

    • R. J. BIRD
    •  & G. D. GALVIN

Authors

  1. Search for R. J. BIRD in:

  2. Search for G. D. GALVIN in:

About this article

Publication history

Received

Revised

Issue Date

DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/254130a0

Further reading

Comments

By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.