Sporozoite and Normal Salivary Gland Induced Immunity in Malaria

Article metrics

Abstract

STUDIES using sporozoites as antigenic material to induce protection against malaria have been relatively scarce compared with those employing antigens of the blood stages. Many workers1–5 have reported considerable protection against challenging homologous sporozoites of Plasmodium gallinaceum. Richards4, using three injections of sporozoites exposed to ultraviolet, dried or treated with formalin, found at least eighteen birds out of twenty were protected, but with freeze-thawed sporozoite material he found only fifteen out of twenty protected. By using six to seven injections of X-irradiated sporozoites of Plasmodium berghei, Nussenzweig et al.6,7 obtained 90–100% protection when the animals were challenged with 2,000 sporozoites two weeks after the last injection.

Access optionsAccess options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

References

  1. 1

    Russell, P. F., Mulligan, H. W., and Mohan, B. N., J. Mal. Inst. Ind., 4, 15 (1941).

  2. 2

    Russell, P. F., and Mohan, B. N., J. Exp. Med., 76, 477 (1942).

  3. 3

    Russell, P. F., Mulligan, H. W., and Mohan, B. N., J. Mal. Inst. Ind., 4, 311 (1942).

  4. 4

    Richards, W. H. G., Nature, 212, 1492 (1966).

  5. 5

    Mulligan, H. W., Russell, P. F., and Mohan, B. N., J. Mal. Inst. Ind., 4, 25 (1941).

  6. 6

    Nussenzweig, R., Vanderberg, J., and Most, H., Nature, 216, 160 (1969).

  7. 7

    Nussenzweig, R., Vanderberg, J., and Most, H., Mil. Med., 134, 176 (1969).

  8. 8

    Rivera, C. I. O., Cunningham, J., and Nussenzweig, R. S., Fed. Proc., 30, 400 (abstract) (1971).

  9. 9

    Damian, R. T., Amer. Nat., 98, 129 (1964).

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Further reading

Comments

By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.