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Investment in Man

Naturevolume 199pages877883 (1963) | Download Citation


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  1. 1

    Compiled from information kindly provided by the Secretariat of the Committee on Higher Education and the Canadian Universities Foundation; also from University Statistics, 1960 (Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics, Canberra); and de Witt, N., Education and Professional Employment in U.S.S.R. (National Science Foundation, 1961).

  2. 2

    Compiled from information kindly provided by the Canadian Universities Foundation, and calculated from statistics published by the University Grants Committee and the Australian Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics. The American figure is quoted from Halsey, A. H., Floud, J., and Anderson, C. A., Education, Economy and Society, 131, Glencoe, 1961), supplemented by information supplied by A. H. Halsey.

  3. 3

    Education, Economy, and Society, 222.

  4. 4

    Floud, Jean, in Ability and Educational Opportunity (edit by Halsey, A. H., 91 (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, 1961); also Early Leaving (H.M.S.O., 1954); Floud, Jean, and Halsey, A. H., Brit. J. Sociology, 8, 33 (1957).

  5. 5

    Furneaux, W. D., The Chosen Few (Oxford, 1961). Kelsall, R. K., Sociol. Rev. Mono., 7 (in the press).

  6. 6

    Scientific and Engineering Manpower in Great Britain, 1959, Cmnd. 902 (H.M.S.O., 1959).

  7. 7

    Sheer increase in amount of education is not necessarily worthwhile. Thus, Fritz Machlup (The Production and Distribution of Knowledge in the United States., Princeton, 1962) demonstrates how, by increasing the efficiency of American schooling, the amount a child learns between the ages of 6 and 18 could be learnt between the ages of 5 and 15, and that an accelerated programme which brought the school-leaving age down from 18 to 15 might save the United States 10,000 million dollars a year.

  8. 8

    Polanyi, M., “The Republic of Science”, Minerva, 1, 59 (1962).

  9. 9

    This assertion is open to challenge but it is supported by several pieces of evidence, for example: (a) in 1960, when an increase in student-numbers to 170,000 was contemplated, the President of the London Mathematical Association at the time calculated that 286 new entrants to the academic profession in mathematics would be required, and that the estimated number available was 14 a year; it might therefore take 20 years to accomplish this recruitment, (b) It used to be assumed that by and large a recruit to the academic profession should have a first-class honours degree. About 7 per cent of honours graduates are awarded first-class honours. This is at present an annual output of a little more than 1,000. The need for recruits into the academic profession, excluding replacements, is of the order of 8,000 if student numbers are to rise to 150,0000.

  10. 10

    This work is summarized in two publications by the Fund for the Advancement of Education, namely, Decade of Experiment, 1951–61 (1961) and Better Utilisation of College Resources (1959). See also Ann. Conf. Higher Educ. (University of Michigan Official Publ. 61, No. 80, 1959).

  11. 11

    Cottrell, T. L., Univ. Edinburgh Gazette, No. 33, 20 (1962). Joyce, C. R. B., and Weatherall, M., Lancet, ii, 402 (1957); i, 568 (1959).

  12. 12

    For the results of experiments on some of these techniques: see Green, E. J., The Learning Process and Programmed Instruction (1963). Kay, H., Research and Experiment in Education, edit. by Tuck, J. P. (Durham, 1961). Lumsdaine, A. A., Student Response in Programmed Instruction (1961). Lumsdaine, A. A., and Glaser, R., Teaching Machines and Programmed Learning (1960). Schramm, W., Programmed Instruction Today and Tomorrow (1962). Stolurow, L. M., Teaching by Machine (1961). Fund for the Advancement of Education, Teaching by Television (1961). For a general discussion, see Ong, W. J., College English, 245 (1960). There are encouraging signs of a change of heart in some British universities over research into university education. In 1963 the University of Lancaster appointed a Research Fellow in Higher Education, and the University of Essex decided to establish a Research Unit for Higher Education.

  13. 13

    California and Western Conference Cost and Statistical Study (Univ. Calif., 1956).

  14. 14

    Tickton, S. G., The Year-round Campus Catches on (Fund for Advancement of Education, 1963).

  15. 15

    Ministry of Education, Statistics of Education, part 2, 72 (1961).

  16. 16

    Sir Peter Venables has been kind enough to give me a breakdown of the refresher courses offered by 67 colleges, including colleges of advanced technology and regional colleges. It is as follows: Duration Courses 2–7 days 16969 2–3 weeks 34 4–6 weeks 18 8–10 weeks 8 3 months 2 6 months 1 9 months 3 Under existing regulations of the Ministry of Education a teacher may be seconded to industry full time for 6 months on full salary, but very little advantage has been taken of this, probably owing to the severe shortage of teachers.

  17. 17

    British Postgraduate Medical Federation. Handbook for the Session 1962–63 and Report for 1961–62 (1962).

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  1. ERIC ASHBY: President of the British Association


  1. Master of Clare College, Cambridge



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