Letter | Published:

Smooth Muscles in the Lungs of Some Urodeles

Nature volume 193, page 798 (24 February 1962) | Download Citation



THE effectiveness of the mouth floor pump in amphibians is greatly increased if the distance between the mandibular articulations is considerable. Owing to this fact there is a tendency among these animals to evolve low and broad skulls. The ratio of the height of the braincase to the distance separating the quadrate bones was about 6 in oldest palæozoic amphibians, it was 15 in Eryops, and in some recent anurans it reaches 25 (ref. 1). The lung ventilation in caudate amphibians is performed by the same mechanism as in anurans2, but is probably less efficient, as owing to the shape of the body the distance between the quadrate bones is smaller and the lungs are more elongated.

Access optionsAccess options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.


  1. 1.

    , Izw. Ak. N. SSSR., Ser. Biol., 22 (1957).

  2. 2.

    , Die Physiologie der Amphibian. Kükenthal u. Krumbach. Handb. Zool., 6 (Berlin, 1941).

  3. 3.

    , Copeia, 2 (1959).

Download references

Author information


  1. Department of General Zoology, Copernicus University, Toruń, Poland.

    • J. CZOPEK


  1. Search for J. CZOPEK in:

About this article

Publication history





By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.