Letter | Published:

Freeze-drying of Bovine Spermatozoa

Naturevolume 192pages995996 (1961) | Download Citation



SINCE 1956, increased attention has been given to techniques for freeze-drying bovine spermatozoa as a method for long-term semen preservation1–5. In one approach1–3, spermatozoa were dried in vacuum after being diluted, glyeerolated, equilibrated and slowly frozen. Low survival-rates and frequent failures were encountered. Leidl3 suggested three possible causes: (a) concentration of glycerol to toxic levels; (b) excessive removal of water; (c) morphological damage (occasional broken mid-pieces).

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  1. 1

    Albright, J. L., Erb, R. E., and Ehlers, M. H., J. Dairy Sci., 41, 206 (1958).

  2. 2

    Bialy, G., and Smith, V. R., J. Dairy Sci., 40, 739 (1957).

  3. 3

    Leidl, W., Proc. Third Intern, Congr. Animal Reprod., Cambridge, 3, 39 (1956).

  4. 4

    Meryman, H. T., and Kafig, E., Nature, 184, 470 (1959).

  5. 5

    Yushchenko, N. P., Proc. Lenin. Acad. Agric. Sci., 22 (6), 37 (1957).

  6. 6

    Caufield, J. B., J. Biophys. Biochem. Cytol., 3, 827 (1957).

  7. 7

    Palade, G. E., J. Exp. Med., 95, 285 (1952).

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  1. Dairy Breeding Research Center, Department of Dairy Science, Pennsylvania State University, University Park

    • R. G. SAACKE
    •  & J. O. ALMQUIST


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