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Chadwick discovered that the beta spectrum was continuous. L. Meitner suggested in 1922 that a quantized nucleus should not be expected to emit a continuous spectrum, and Ellis found non-conservation of energy from experiments on the emitted electron. Chadwick, J., Verh. Deutsch. Phys. Ges., 16, 383 (1914). Ellis, C. D., Internat. Conf. on Phys., 15, 209 (1934).
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We do not attempt here to describe the many beautiful and difficult, recoil experiments in which recoils of neutrino-emitting nuclei (∼ 8–200 eV.) have been measured. A summary can be found in an article by O. Kofoed-Hansen in Siegbahn's “Beta and Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy” (Interscience Publishers, Inc., New York, 1955).
Langer, L. M., and Moffat, R. J. D., Phys. Rev., 88, 689 (1952). Hamilton Alford and Gross, Phys. Rev., 92, 1521 (1953). This question is treated in detail in an article by C. S. Wu in Siegbahn (op. cit.). We quote Dr. Wu's most conservatively estimated limit.
Houtermans, F. G., and Thirring, W., Helv. Phys. Acta, 27, 81 (1954). H. A. Bethe has given the relationship between the recoil electron spectrum and the energy and magnetic moment of a neutrino in Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc., 31, 108 (1935).
Crane, H. R., Revs. Mod. Phys., 20, 278 (1948). This article also summarizes neutrino detection attempts to 1948. The status of the neutrino in 1936 is given by H. A. Bethe and R. F. Bacher, Revs. Mod. Phys., 8, 82 (1936).
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Davis, jun., R., Contributed Paper, American Physical Society, Washington, D. C., Meeting, 1956. This experiment was originally suggested by Pontecorvo and considered by Alvarez in a report UCRL-328 (1949).
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The neutrino spectrum was deduced from the spectrum of beta-radiation from fission fragments as measured by C. O. Muehlhause at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. Dr. Muehlhause kindly communicated his results to us in advance of publication.
The evidence for and against the existence of a ‘bineutron’, also called ‘dineutron’, is discussed by B. T. Feld in his article on the neutron in the volume edited by E. Segrè entitled “Experimental Nuclear Physics”, 2 (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1953).
Oneda, S., and Wakasa, A., discuss the question of classes of interactions between the elementary particles in Nuclear Phys., 1, 445 (1956).
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