WHEN Poland regained its independence in 1918, a new impetus was given to Polish science and culture, which had had to struggle against adverse conditions for so long. The present year marks the completion of twenty years of constructive achievement in many directions. Much that has been achieved in general science has been recorded in Nauka PolsKa, a comprehensive publication issued at least once annually by the Mianowski Institute for the Encouragement of Science in Poland, which is concerned with the history, organization and co-ordination of scientific effort. The recently published volume for 1938 (No. 23) includes in its 400 pages contributions by several leading Polish men of science. Thus, Prof. B. Kieskowski discusses the question whether philosophy can be considered as a science, and gives cogent reasons for an affirmative answer. Prof. W. Semkowicz has two lengthy contributions, the first being devoted to a comprehensive account of scientific and philological work at Cracow, the seat of the Polish Academy of Sciences and of the Jagellonian University, since the establishment of the republic. The second article is a survey of the special needs of science to-day. There is an informative description, by Dr. W. Siemaszko, of recent advances in phytopathology both in Poland and elsewhere. This branch of applied botany is of special significance to a country like Poland, which has a large agricultural industry as well as extensive forests. Particular attention is given to the organization and co-ordination of research, and reference is made to the facilities for planned researches in Poland, Czechoslovakia, Britain and America. Of immediate interest, too, is a contribution by Dr. J. Golabek on Polish cultural facilities in Czechoslovakia and the collaboration between men of science in these two Slav countries. A section devoted to reviews makes reference not only to books, but also includes resumes of articles that have appeared in scientific periodicals. This volume of Nauka Polska concludes with a bibliography of works dealing with the 'science of science' for the years 1935 and 1936.