THE British Speleological Association, which met for its second annual conference at Bristol on July 23-26, may now be regarded as fully established. It has acquired Cragdale House, Settle, Yorks, for its headquarters—a 'shilling fund' to raise £500 has been initiated for its equipment by the women members—and it has issued the first number of a publication under the title "Caves and Caving" (Is., annual subscription 4s. 6d.), in which speleological studies will be treated scientifically, but in popular form. The first issue opens with Sir Arthur Keith's presidential address "History from Caves", delivered at Buxton last year, fronted by an excellent portrait of the author ; Prof. L. S. Palmer follows with an account of the objects of the Association and its work up to the present, the latest undertaking to which he refers being the systematic study of the aquatic fauna, to be found in cave streams ; Mr. E. Simpson reviews the life-work in speleology of the veteran, M. E. A. Martel, honorary member of the British Speleological Association, and honorary president of the Spéléo Club de France at its foundation in 1930. Mr. A. Leslie Armstrong counsels caution in "Cave Exploration as a Science" ; and Dr. Franco Anelli gives an account of the recent descent into La Preta Cavern in the Lessini Mountains of the Veronese, Italy, the deepest known cave in the world, when a depth of 637 metres (approximately 2,090 ft.) was reached. At the recent field meeting of the British Speleological Association at Gaping Ghyll Hole, Ingleborough, Yorks, 356 descents were made and half a mile of new passages were explored. This is Britain's largest cave. The history of its exploration is reviewed by Mr. E. Simpson in a contribution, to be continued. Among other articles is a first instalment of the extremely valuable record of cave finds, arranged under caves, which is being compiled through inquiry by Dr. Wilfrid Jackson. It will, when complete, show the present location, museum or other, of all animal remains and artefacts of archæological interest found in British caves, so far as can be ascertained.