Letter | Published:

Complexity of the Solid State

Naturevolume 134pages698699 (1934) | Download Citation



THE theory of allotropy assumes that every state of aggregation of a so-called single substance is complex, so that every crystalline state consists of mixed crystals, built up of molecules of different kinds. These different kinds of molecules can change the one into the other. The transformation can lead to a chemical equilibrium, and only when this equilibrium (inner equilibrium) is established does such a pure substance behave as a real single substance.

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  1. 1

    NATURE, 113, 855, June 14, 1924.

  2. 2

    J. Chem. Soc., 1603; 1926.

  3. 3

    E. Adinolfl (Atti R. Accad. Lincei, 8, 381 ; 1928) found that the specific heat of bismuth is increased by about 14 per cent and that of tellurium by 8 per cent by exposure to X-rays. D. Coster and A. v. d. Ziel (Z. physik. Chem., B, 20, 283; 1933) found that irradiation with X-rays of the monoalkyl malonic acids accelerates strongly the transformations taking place in these substances.

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  1. Laboratory of General and Inorganic Chemistry, University, Amsterdam

    • A. SMITS
    •  & N. F. MOERMAN


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