Origin and Nature of the Association between Invertebrates and Unicellular Algæ

Abstract

THE widespread occurrence of zoochlorellae or zooxanthellae within the tissues of invertebrates is now universally recognised, the extent of knowledge on this subject up to 1930 being well summarised by Buchner1. Nevertheless the actual nature of this association, or rather of the many forms which this may take and the connexion between these, is greatly in need of clarification. It is unfortunate that of the many workers in this field none, save Brandt, one of the earliest, has studied conditions in more than one or two groups. My own work on the comparative physiology of digestion and on symbiosis between zooxanthellae and Anthozoa and Mollusca, together with a critical examination of recent, largely experimental, work on this type of symbiosis, has enabled me to throw some light on the origin and nature of this association.

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YONGE, C. Origin and Nature of the Association between Invertebrates and Unicellular Algæ. Nature 134, 12–15 (1934). https://doi.org/10.1038/134012a0

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