PARIS Academy of Sciences, October 5,—M. Bouley, President, in the chair.—Spectral analysis of the elements of the terrestrial atmosphere, by M. J. Janssen. The author describes the special arrangements that have been made at the Meudon Observatory for the study of the hydrogen, oxygen, and other substances present in the terrestrial atmosphere. Four tubes, one 60 metres long, have already been fitted up in a chamber in which solar, electric and other lights can be employed under favourable conditions.—Thermic studies of the aromatic series: the phenols of complex function, by M. Berthelot. New characters derived from thermo-chemistry have been determined for the purpose of distinguishing the various isomerous groups of the aromatic series and disclosing the phenolic function belonging more particularly to some of these groups. In order to establish the general character and importance of this new instrument of research, the author continues his experiments with the compounds derived from the oxybenzoic acids, to which the synthesis of vanilline and the allied substances has given so much interest. The results already obtained establish a perfect agreement between the thermic indications and the chemical theories respecting the complex phenolic functions.— The treatment of mildew and rot with a mixture of lime and sulphate of copper, by M. A. Millardet. During the present season M. Nathaniel Johnston has applied this new process to 50,000 vines in the Medoc district with complete success. The plants so treated are in a perfectly healthy state, while those not treated are in a wretched condition.—On the destruction of mildew by the sulphate of copper, by M. A. Perrey. A solution of 5 per cent, of sulphate of crystallised copper has this year been successfully and economically applied to vineyards in Burgundy hitherto unsuccessfully treated with sulphur. —Ravages of mildew in the northern districts of Touraine during the present year, by M. Larreguy de Civrieux. The disease broke out suddenly a few days after a violent storm in July, attacking several varieties of the vine and the oak trees of the surrounding plantations to the exclusion of all other plants.—Note on the quadratic forms in the theory of the linear differential equations, by M. Halphen.—On the physiologic action of the salts of rubidium, by M. Ch. Richet. Subcutaneous and intra-venous injections of the chloride of rubidium applied to frogs, fishes, rabbits, guinea-pigs, and pigeons, show that this metal has the same toxic effect as potassium, but somewhat less virulent.—On the internal phenomena of muscular contraction in the striated primitive fasces in Corethra plumicornis and the frog, by M. F. Laulanié.—Line of development followed by the inoculated virus of tuberculosis in man, the rabbit, and guinea-pig: application to the study of inoculation and re-inoculation for tuberculosis, by M. S. Arloing.—A remarkable vegetable centre in the peninsula of Brittany, by M. L. Crié. Of this vegetable zone the characteristic species appear to be Narcissus reflexus, Lois.; Eryngium mzdparum, Gay; Omphalodes littoralis, Leh.; and Linaria arenaria, D. C.—Application of thermo-chemistry to the explanation of geological phenomena; general principles; ores of manganese, by M. Dieulafait. The principle is laid down that of all the natural combinations of each metal, that which developes the greatest heat in its formation occurs most extensively in nature, and must be regarded as its principal ore. Applying this principle to the study of manganese, the author finds that the ores of this metal exist in nature in the relative proportions and under the conditions anticipated by the laws of thermo-chemistry.—On the whirlwinds observed by aeronauts, by M, Diamilla-Müller. These whirlwinds are attributed to the collision of two atmospheric currents coming from opposite directions, and are compared with the eddies produced in streams by analogous causes.—Note on a meteor observed at Saigon, Cochin-China, on August 22, 1885, by M.Réveillére.—Kinematics of the locomotion of quadrupeds: trajectories and comparative velocities of the pastern and hoof of the horse at the different phases of its motion.
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