Societies and Academies

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    LONDON Chemical Society, June 7.-Dr. Gladstone in the chair.- The following papers were read:-On the gases inclosed in lignite coal and mineral resin from Bovey Heathfield, by J. W. Thomas. Four samples were examined, two of which contained much hydrated oxide of iron in the cleavages. The gases consisted chiefly of carbonic acid, carbonic oxide, nitrogen, and sulphuretted hydrogen. In one case sulphur sublimed off in yellow crystals; organo-sulphur compounds, mercaptan, sulphide of allyl, &c,, were also present in the gases. The lignites resemble cannel coal more than any other of the true coals as regards the occluded gases, but are far less stable, decomposing, in vacuo, below 200 ° C., whilst the true coals resist a temperature of 300 ° C. It seems probable that the iron pyrites of true coal have derived their sulphur from that existing in organic combination in the plants from which coal is produced.—On apparatus for gas analysis, by Dr. Frankland. The author proposes to substitute for the india-rubber cork, which has several disadvantages, at the bottom of the water-cylinder, a cast-iron base through which the two glass tubes pass, and are firmly clamped by a wooden clamp; the latter is screwed to the cast-iron base. The most important improvement is, however, the removal of the steel clamps which connect the laboratory and measuring tubes. These are replaced by a glass cup at the top of the measuring tube into which fits the drawn-out end of the laboratory tube, covered with thin sheet-india-rubber · this flexible joint, when wetted and covered with mercury, is quite air-tight.—On narco-tine,,cotarnine, and hydrocotarnine, Part V., by Dr. Wright. The preparation of bromhydrocotarnine hydrobromide, bromo-cotarnine hydrobromide, and tribromhydrocotarnine hydrobromide is described; the second of these bodies, when heated to 200 ° splits into a new base, tarconine, and a large amount of an indigo-blue substance; the latter body is very insoluble, but dissolves in strong sulphuric acid, forming a magnificent intense purplish solution. Bromocotarnin crystallises in fine scarlet crystals. Noropianic acid and other substances were also prepared and their properties examined.—On otto of limes, by C. H. Piesse and Dr. Wright. A terpene-like body boiling at 176 ° C. was obtained which yielded but little cymene. The residue in the retort, after standing two to three months, formed a quantity of crystals. These crystals were investigated and their composition determined.—On primary normal heptyl alcohol and some of its derivatives, by C.'F. Cross. Pure osnanthol was prepared with a specific gravity of 0.823 at 16 ° C. Pure heptyl alcohol is colourless, has an agreeable odour, sp. gr. at o ° 0.833, boils at 175 °. Heptyl chloride, bromide, iodide, acetate, and oenanthylate were prepared and examined; their boiling-points closely agree with those calculated by Schor-lemmer.—On the transformation of aurin into rosanilin, by Messrs. Dale and Schorlemmer. The authors find the spectra of the hydrochlorides of their new base, and rosaniline quite identical; they have also prepared from their base Hofmann's violet, aniline blue, and aniline green.

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    Societies and Academies . Nature 16, 134–136 (1877) doi:10.1038/016134b0

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