Scientific Serials

    Abstract

    THE American Journal of Science and Arts, January.—This number commences with a paper of “Contributions to Meteorology,” in which Prof. Loomis gives results derived from an examination of the United States weather maps and from other sources. Among the points observed are: that periods of unusual cold are generally accompanied by descent of air from the upper regions of the atmosphere, and they are almost quite independent of direction of the wind; that both in summer and winter the force of vapour in Philadelphia is greatest with the wind which brings the highest temperature, and conversely; that the rainfall there shows a diurnal maximum about 6 P. M. and a minimum about 3 A.M.; that in the northern hemisphere storms increase in frequency as we proceed northward as far as latitude 60°, and perhaps somewhat further; and that storms travel with less velocity over the Atlantic (19.6 miles an hour) than over the continents of America and Europe (26 miles an hour). The author compares storm-paths in America and Europe.—Mr. Rowland continues his “Studies on Magnetic Distribution,” and one result he arrives at is, that hardening is most useful for short magnets; in very long bars it does not increase the total quantity of magnetism, but only changes the distribution. It would seem that almost the only use in hardening magnets at all is to concentrate the magnetism and reduce the weight.—This paper is followed by a useful summary and comparison of recent researches on Sound by Tyndall, Henry, and Duane.—Prof. Draper endeavours to determine the correction to be applied for effect of temperature on the power of solutions of quinine to rotate polarised light. The presence of sulphuric acid changes the rotation power of the alkaloid by 100°. Quinine used to be given in the form of sulphuric acid solution, and in the recently more popular form of pills or the like, its action is much less, and less certain; this difference being doubtless due to the change of molecular arrangement which is revealed in action of sulphate solutions of the alkaloid on light.—Mr. Alien has a note on extinct wolf and deer species from the lead regions of the Upper Mississippi.

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