Ribosome

Definition

The ribosome is a large assembly of proteins and ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) that functions to translate messenger RNAs (mRNAs) into proteins. The ribosome catalyzes the assembly of amino acids into peptide chains of defined sequence, as dictated by the interaction of amino-acid-carrying transport RNAs (tRNAs) with complementary sequences in the ribosome-bound mRNA.

Latest Research and Reviews

  • Research |

    The poxvirus vaccinia virus phosphorylates serine/threonine residues in the human small ribosomal subunit RACK1, converting it to a plant-like state to favour translation of poxvirus mRNAs

    • Sujata Jha
    • , Madeline G. Rollins
    • , Gabriele Fuchs
    • , Dean J. Procter
    • , Elizabeth A. Hall
    • , Kira Cozzolino
    • , Peter Sarnow
    • , Jeffrey N. Savas
    •  & Derek Walsh
  • Research | | open

    Programmed −1 ribosomal frameshifting (−1 PRF) is a mechanism whereby specific signals within mRNAs direct ribosomes to shift into an alternative reading frame. Here the authors describe a mechanism of −1 PRF that is temporally regulated by a viral protein over the course of the virus replicative cycle.

    • Sawsan Napthine
    • , Roger Ling
    • , Leanne K. Finch
    • , Joshua D. Jones
    • , Susanne Bell
    • , Ian Brierley
    •  & Andrew E. Firth
  • Research |

    Structural ensembles of the 70S ribosome bound to cognate or near-cognate charged tRNAs in complex with EF-Tu illustrate the crucial role of the nucleotide G530 in decoding of mRNA, and demonstrate that translational fidelity results from direct control of GTPase by the decoding centre.

    • Anna B. Loveland
    • , Gabriel Demo
    • , Nikolaus Grigorieff
    •  & Andrei A. Korostelev
    Nature 546, 113–117
  • Research | | open

    Membrane proteins are inserted co-transnationally through the association between ribosome, the signal recognition particle and its receptor, and the membrane-bound translocon. Here the authors present a cryo-EM reconstruction of this quaternary complex in the activated state and propose a model for signal sequence transfer to the translocon.

    • Ahmad Jomaa
    • , Yu-Hsien Hwang Fu
    • , Daniel Boehringer
    • , Marc Leibundgut
    • , Shu-ou Shan
    •  & Nenad Ban
  • Research |

    Plasmodium falciparum PTEF is a translation-enhancing factor that interacts with ribosomes to facilitate translation of PfEMP1–VAR2CSA, a ligand that mediates adhesion of infected red blood cells to the placenta during pregnancy-associated malaria.

    • Sherwin Chan
    • , Alejandra Frasch
    • , Chandra Sekhar Mandava
    • , Jun-Hong Ch'ng
    • , Maria del Pilar Quintana
    • , Mattias Vesterlund
    • , Mehdi Ghorbal
    • , Nicolas Joannin
    • , Oscar Franzén
    • , Jose-Juan Lopez-Rubio
    • , Sonia Barbieri
    • , Antonio Lanzavecchia
    • , Suparna Sanyal
    •  & Mats Wahlgren

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