Non-REM sleep

Definition

Non-REM sleep refers to the stages of sleep in which there is little or no random eye movements (REM), that is, stages 1–3 of sleep. During these phases, muscle tone is retained and dreaming is rare; stage 3, the deepest sleep stage, has been associated with memory consolidation.

Latest Research and Reviews

  • Research | | open

    During non-REM sleep, the thalamus produces spindles and the cortex produces downstates, but the interaction between these two areas in these sleep phenomena is not understood. Here, authors describe the dynamic loop between the thalamus and cortex that organizes the production of spindles and downstates in the human brain.

    • Rachel A. Mak-McCully
    • , Matthieu Rolland
    • , Anna Sargsyan
    • , Chris Gonzalez
    • , Michel Magnin
    • , Patrick Chauvel
    • , Marc Rey
    • , Hélène Bastuji
    •  & Eric Halgren
  • Research |

    Two mutations affecting the sleep–wakefulness balance in mice are detected, showing that the SIK3 protein kinase is essential for determining daily wake time, and the NALCN cation channel regulates the duration of rapid eye movement sleep.

    • Hiromasa Funato
    • , Chika Miyoshi
    • , Tomoyuki Fujiyama
    • , Takeshi Kanda
    • , Makito Sato
    • , Zhiqiang Wang
    • , Jing Ma
    • , Shin Nakane
    • , Jun Tomita
    • , Aya Ikkyu
    • , Miyo Kakizaki
    • , Noriko Hotta-Hirashima
    • , Satomi Kanno
    • , Haruna Komiya
    • , Fuyuki Asano
    • , Takato Honda
    • , Staci J. Kim
    • , Kanako Harano
    • , Hiroki Muramoto
    • , Toshiya Yonezawa
    • , Seiya Mizuno
    • , Shinichi Miyazaki
    • , Linzi Connor
    • , Vivek Kumar
    • , Ikuo Miura
    • , Tomohiro Suzuki
    • , Atsushi Watanabe
    • , Manabu Abe
    • , Fumihiro Sugiyama
    • , Satoru Takahashi
    • , Kenji Sakimura
    • , Yu Hayashi
    • , Qinghua Liu
    • , Kazuhiko Kume
    • , Shigeharu Wakana
    • , Joseph S. Takahashi
    •  & Masashi Yanagisawa
    Nature 539, 378–383
  • Research |

    The authors identify a new arousal circuit in the mammalian brain. They provide correlative and optogenetic evidence indicating that a subset of hypothalamic cells drive awakening from non-rapid eye movement (slow-wave) sleep and emergence from anesthesia by exerting a strong inhibitory tone onto reticular thalamic neurons.

    • Carolina Gutierrez Herrera
    • , Marta Carus Cadavieco
    • , Sonia Jego
    • , Alexey Ponomarenko
    • , Tatiana Korotkova
    •  & Antoine Adamantidis
    Nature Neuroscience 19, 290–298
  • Research |

    The authors find that optogenetic stimulation of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH)-expressing neurons in the lateral hypothalamus selectively extends the duration of paradoxical sleep episodes in mice. Activation of MCH fibers in the tuberomammillary nucleus leads to the release of GABA and a similar increase in paradoxical sleep stability.

    • Sonia Jego
    • , Stephen D Glasgow
    • , Carolina Gutierrez Herrera
    • , Mats Ekstrand
    • , Sean J Reed
    • , Richard Boyce
    • , Jeffrey Friedman
    • , Denis Burdakov
    •  & Antoine R Adamantidis
    Nature Neuroscience 16, 1637–1643

News and Comment