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Small-molecule–neuropeptide co-transmission is pervasive throughout the nervous system of all animals. In this Review, Nusbaum, Blitz and Marder discuss how co-transmission is an important source for the considerable flexibility that has been established for synapses, circuits and behaviour.
Researchers show that orbitofrontal neurons perform the same value-related computations across different decisions. Value computations are therefore a critical feature around which orbitofrontal representations are organized.
A new study has located 'hot spots' in the rat spinal cord that are associated with leg flexion and extension in rats. Electrical stimulation applied in an alternating pattern between these hot spots facilitated locomotion after the hindlimbs were paralyzed as a result of spinal cord injury (SCI).
A new study shows that astrocytes are involved in the development of chronic itch in a mouse model. This is dependent on upregulation of lipocalin 2 (LCN2) by the transcription factor STAT-3 and astrogliosis.