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The reason for the decline in frequency of Atlantic major hurricanes since 2005 is still debated. Here the authors combine observations with model simulations to show that this decline is largely due to changes in the Atlantic ocean meridional overturning circulation.
Consolidated sediments in the Cascadia subduction zone may create conditions favourable for megathrust earthquake ruptures over long distances and close to the trench, according to analyses of seismic velocity of sediments from the region. Less-consolidated sediments instead may promote aseismic slip of the plate boundary.
Earthquakes frequently occur in the brittle-ductile transition near the base of the seismogenic zone. Using shear experiments on calcite faults, here the authors show that microscale cavitation plays a role in controlling the brittle-ductile transition, and in nucleating earthquakes at the base of the seismogenic zone.
Large, intense thunderstorms frequently cause flooding and fatalities. Now, research finds that these storms may see a threefold increase in frequency and produce significantly heavier downpours in the future, far exceeding previous estimates.
The Himalaya grow as India and Eurasia collide. Analyses of deformation during the 2015 Gorkha earthquake suggest that slip on small-scale splay faults, as well as motion during the interseismic period, help to create Earth's highest mountains.
Rockfall often seems to occur spontaneously without an obvious cause. Monitoring of a granitic cliff reveals that cyclical temperature variations can subtly act to slowly and incrementally damage hard rock until failure is inevitable.