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Musculoskeletal models are experimental systems that recreate aspects of human musculoskeletal development, function or disease. For example, rodents have been used to study musculoskeletal disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis.
Karina Nakayama et al. bioengineer endothelialized mouse skeletal muscle using parallel-aligned nanofibrillar scaffolds. They find that muscle produced using the aligned scaffolds developed a spatially patterned structure and showed improved endothelial interaction compared to muscle engineered with randomly-oriented scaffolds.