Mitochondria

Mitochondria are cytoplasmic organelles found in most eukaryotic cells. They are formed from an outer membrane, a highly invaginated inner membrane containing cristae, and a matrix. Mitochondria generate ATP through oxidative phosphorylation, and also have a central role in apoptosis.

Latest Research and Reviews

  • Research | | open

    Immune cells produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) to eliminate pathogens, but cell-spontaneous death and ageing may also be induced. Here the authors show that, upon sensing ROS, Mst1/2 kinases modulate the activity of Nrf2 transcription factor and downstream genetic programs to protect mouse macrophages from death and ageing.

    • Ping Wang
    • , Jing Geng
    • , Jiahui Gao
    • , Hao Zhao
    • , Junhong Li
    • , Yiran Shi
    • , Bingying Yang
    • , Chen Xiao
    • , Yueyue Linghu
    • , Xiufeng Sun
    • , Xin Chen
    • , Lixin Hong
    • , Funiu Qin
    • , Xun Li
    • , Jau-Song Yu
    • , Han You
    • , Zengqiang Yuan
    • , Dawang Zhou
    • , Randy L. Johnson
    •  & Lanfen Chen
  • Research |

    Many beneficial effects of exercise are mediated by factors secreted from the exercising muscle, so-called myokines. Here, the authors identify what might be the first exercised-induced adipokine, TGF-β2, which is secreted from subcutaneous fat in response to exercise-induced increases in serum lactate levels and has beneficial metabolic effects in mice.

    • Hirokazu Takahashi
    • , Christiano R. R. Alves
    • , Kristin I. Stanford
    • , Roeland J. W. Middelbeek
    • , Pasquale Nigro
    • , Rebecca E. Ryan
    • , Ruidan Xue
    • , Masaji Sakaguchi
    • , Matthew D. Lynes
    • , Kawai So
    • , Joram D. Mul
    • , Min-Young Lee
    • , Estelle Balan
    • , Hui Pan
    • , Jonathan M. Dreyfuss
    • , Michael F. Hirshman
    • , Mohamad Azhar
    • , Jarna C. Hannukainen
    • , Pirjo Nuutila
    • , Kari K. Kalliokoski
    • , Søren Nielsen
    • , Bente K. Pedersen
    • , C. Ronald Kahn
    • , Yu-Hua Tseng
    •  & Laurie J. Goodyear
    Nature Metabolism 1, 291-303
  • Research | | open

    Selective autophagy receptors are thought to selectively recruit Atg8 positive membranes to cargo via their LIR motif. Here, the authors show the LIR motifs in OPTN and NDP52 are dispensable for selectivity, functioning instead to recruit additional receptors and amplify mitophagy.

    • Benjamin Scott Padman
    • , Thanh Ngoc Nguyen
    • , Louise Uoselis
    • , Marvin Skulsuppaisarn
    • , Lan K. Nguyen
    •  & Michael Lazarou
  • Research | | open

    Beta II protein kinase C (βIIPKC) activation contributes to heart failure. Here the authors show, in a rat model of myocardial infarction, that heart failure outcome can be improved by selectively inhibiting the interaction between βIIPKC and its downstream mitochondrial target Mitofusin-1, and that this strategy is superior to global βIIPKC inhibition.

    • Julio C. B. Ferreira
    • , Juliane C. Campos
    • , Nir Qvit
    • , Xin Qi
    • , Luiz H. M. Bozi
    • , Luiz R. G. Bechara
    • , Vanessa M. Lima
    • , Bruno B. Queliconi
    • , Marie-Helene Disatnik
    • , Paulo M. M. Dourado
    • , Alicia J. Kowaltowski
    •  & Daria Mochly-Rosen
  • Research | | open

    AMPK is regulates cellular energy and has been extensively studied, although our knowledge of downstream substrates is incomplete. Here, Chen et al. perform global quantitative analysis for AMPK-dependent sites and validate one hit, ARMC10, as a direct AMPK effector of mitochondrial dynamics.

    • Zhen Chen
    • , Caoqi Lei
    • , Chao Wang
    • , Nan Li
    • , Mrinal Srivastava
    • , Mengfan Tang
    • , Huimin Zhang
    • , Jong Min Choi
    • , Sung Yun Jung
    • , Jun Qin
    •  & Junjie Chen

News and Comment

  • News and Views |

    Strategies to restore levels of the enzyme cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinclueotide (NAD) late in life to maintain health by treatment with NAD precursors, such as nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), represent an exciting area of research in aging and age-related diseases. A study in Nature Metabolism provides an answer to the hotly debated yet fundamental question: how NMN actually gets into cells.

    • Lindsay E. Wu
    •  & David A. Sinclair
  • News and Views |

    The growth of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) is a bio-energetically demanding process. Surprisingly, the specific role of mitochondria in angiogenesis remains unclear. A study in this issue of Nature Metabolism now demonstrates that mitochondrial respiration is essential for angiogenic growth by controlling endothelial proliferation.

    • Jorge Andrade
    •  & Michael Potente
  • Comments and Opinion |

    Cell metabolism has long been at the forefront of tumour biology, but in the past decade the importance of cellular bioenergetics has been increasingly recognized in regulating immune cell function. Mechanistic studies in 2018 have highlighted cell metabolism as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

    • Trudy McGarry
    •  & Ursula Fearon
  • News and Views |

    Ancestral experience of mitochondrial stress is now found to render progeny of the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans more resistant to the same insult for up to four generations. A DNA modification, N6-methyldeoxyadenine, is implicated in the inheritance of this stress adaptation.

    • Sarah-Lena Offenburger
    • , Marcos Francisco Perez
    •  & Ben Lehner