Microglia

Definition

Microglia are a type of small macrophage-like glial cell in the central nervous system. Microglia can engage in phagocytosis, and are involved in immune responses within, as well as the development and remodelling of the nervous system. Their shape varies depending on the developmental and functional state, and anatomical location.

Latest Research and Reviews

  • Research |

    Microglia are the macrophages of the CNS, with innate neuroimmune function, and play important roles in tissue homeostasis, CNS development and neurodegeneration. Here human microglial gene expression profiles were generated. Human and mouse microglia were highly similar, except for aging-regulated genes, indicating that microglial aging differs between humans and mice.

    • Thais F Galatro
    • , Inge R Holtman
    • , Antonio M Lerario
    • , Ilia D Vainchtein
    • , Nieske Brouwer
    • , Paula R Sola
    • , Mariana M Veras
    • , Tulio F Pereira
    • , Renata E P Leite
    • , Thomas Möller
    • , Paul D Wes
    • , Mari C Sogayar
    • , Jon D Laman
    • , Wilfred den Dunnen
    • , Carlos A Pasqualucci
    • , Sueli M Oba-Shinjo
    • , Erik W G M Boddeke
    • , Suely K N Marie
    •  & Bart J L Eggen
    Nature Neuroscience 20, 1162–1171
  • Research |

    Abnormal behavioural phenotypes and synapse loss in the brain of lupus-prone mice are prevented by blocking type I interferon signalling, which is further shown to stimulate microglial phagocytosis of neuronal material in the brains of these mice.

    • Allison R. Bialas
    • , Jessy Presumey
    • , Abhishek Das
    • , Cees E. van der Poel
    • , Peter H. Lapchak
    • , Luka Mesin
    • , Gabriel Victora
    • , George C. Tsokos
    • , Christian Mawrin
    • , Ronald Herbst
    •  & Michael C. Carroll
    Nature 546, 539–543
  • Research | | open

    TRPV1 is known to be expressed in peripheral structures and the spinal cord, especially for pain processing. Here the authors show that in the brain, in particular the anterior cingulate cortex, TRPV1 is functionally expressed in microglia; stimulation of TRPV1 activates microglia, which in turn affects glutamatergic neurotransmission.

    • Maria Cristina Marrone
    • , Annunziato Morabito
    • , Michela Giustizieri
    • , Valerio Chiurchiù
    • , Alessandro Leuti
    • , Marzia Mattioli
    • , Sara Marinelli
    • , Loredana Riganti
    • , Marta Lombardi
    • , Emanuele Murana
    • , Antonio Totaro
    • , Daniele Piomelli
    • , Davide Ragozzino
    • , Sergio Oddi
    • , Mauro Maccarrone
    • , Claudia Verderio
    •  & Silvia Marinelli
  • Research |

    Microglia can expand and divide quickly in the context of CNS pathology, but little is known about the kinetics and clonality of microgliosis. Prinz and colleagues develop a new fate mapping system to monitor microglial dynamics. Microglial self-renewal is found to be a stochastic process under steady state conditions, whereas clonal expansion is observed during disease.

    • Tuan Leng Tay
    • , Dominic Mai
    • , Jana Dautzenberg
    • , Francisco Fernández-Klett
    • , Gen Lin
    • , Sagar
    • , Moumita Datta
    • , Anne Drougard
    • , Thomas Stempfl
    • , Alberto Ardura-Fabregat
    • , Ori Staszewski
    • , Anca Margineanu
    • , Anje Sporbert
    • , Lars M Steinmetz
    • , J Andrew Pospisilik
    • , Steffen Jung
    • , Josef Priller
    • , Dominic Grün
    • , Olaf Ronneberger
    •  & Marco Prinz
    Nature Neuroscience 20, 793–803

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