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Hormonal therapies use hormones or hormone antagonists in medical treatment. For example, hormone replacement therapy can be used to alleviate the symptoms of the menopause and growth hormone is given to people with growth hormone deficiency.
Fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) has recently emerged as a potentially safe candidate to restore euglycaemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Here, Evans and colleagues discuss mechanisms by which central injection of FGF1 can improve central glucose sensing and peripheral glucose uptake, the neuronal circuits involved and therapeutic considerations for translating these findings to the clinic.
Emerging evidence suggests that the prolonged therapeutic use of androgen receptor (AR)-targeting agents in patients with prostate cancer induces histological dedifferentiation and lineage alterations. Roubaud and colleagues propose that AR suppression creates a checkpoint by which potent therapies exert a selective pressure on prostate cancer cells, favouring dedifferentiated and/or treatment-resistant cell lineages. The authors present a new clinical trial strategy in which rapid drug cycling is used to delay the onset of resistance and treatment-induced lineage crisis in patients with prostate cancer.
Thyroid hormones have an important role in maintaining cardiovascular homeostasis, and subtle changes in thyroid hormone concentrations adversely influence the cardiovascular system. In this Review, Jabbar et al. discuss the role of thyroid hormones in the pathogenesis and management of cardiovascular diseases such as heart failure and acute myocardial infarction, and outline the utility of therapy with thyroid hormones for the management of these conditions.
Clinical practice regarding the use of hormone-replacement therapy (HRT) has undergone many changes since its introduction in the 1940s. Here, Roger Lobo frames the current thinking on the use of HRT in postmenopausal women, beginning with a historical perspective and then discussing how the interpretation of HRT data has changed over time.
This Review focuses on the diagnosis, natural history and management of children with subclinical hypothyroidism, as well as the controversy regarding treatment. The latest data on health outcomes, metabolic issues and the risk of cardiovascular disease are outlined.
Androgen deprivation therapy in men with prostate cancer is associated with several adverse effects. Østergren and colleagues review the use of exercise interventions to improve physical functioning and mitigate fatigue, changes in body composition and components of metabolic syndrome.
First-line, potent androgen blockade for patients with newly diagnosed, advanced-stage, castration-sensitive prostate cancer is confirmed as an effective strategy by data from the STAMPEDE and LATITUDE trials. Herein, we highlight the benefits, discuss caveats and consider the clinical care implications of these findings.
Galeterone is a steroid 17-α-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase and androgen receptor antagonist intended for patients with prostate cancer. Similar to abiraterone, galeterone has a steroid scaffold structure and mimics natural ligands; thus, these agents are metabolized by the same enzymes that synthesize or degrade naturally occurring steroids, which can result in attenuated efficacy.