Epidemiology

  • Article | | open

    Birthweight has been found to associate with later-life health outcomes. Here the authors perform a meta-analysis of epigenome-wide association studies of 8,825 neonates from 24 birth cohorts in the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics Consortium, identifying differentially methylated CpGs in neonatal blood that associate with birthweight.

    • Leanne K. Küpers
    • , Claire Monnereau
    • , Gemma C. Sharp
    • , Paul Yousefi
    • , Lucas A. Salas
    • , Akram Ghantous
    • , Christian M. Page
    • , Sarah E. Reese
    • , Allen J. Wilcox
    • , Darina Czamara
    • , Anne P. Starling
    • , Alexei Novoloaca
    • , Samantha Lent
    • , Ritu Roy
    • , Cathrine Hoyo
    • , Carrie V. Breton
    • , Catherine Allard
    • , Allan C. Just
    • , Kelly M. Bakulski
    • , John W. Holloway
    • , Todd M. Everson
    • , Cheng-Jian Xu
    • , Rae-Chi Huang
    • , Diana A. van der Plaat
    • , Matthias Wielscher
    • , Simon Kebede Merid
    • , Vilhelmina Ullemar
    • , Faisal I. Rezwan
    • , Jari Lahti
    • , Jenny van Dongen
    • , Sabine A. S. Langie
    • , Tom G. Richardson
    • , Maria C. Magnus
    • , Ellen A. Nohr
    • , Zongli Xu
    • , Liesbeth Duijts
    • , Shanshan Zhao
    • , Weiming Zhang
    • , Michelle Plusquin
    • , Dawn L. DeMeo
    • , Olivia Solomon
    • , Joosje H. Heimovaara
    • , Dereje D. Jima
    • , Lu Gao
    • , Mariona Bustamante
    • , Patrice Perron
    • , Robert O. Wright
    • , Irva Hertz-Picciotto
    • , Hongmei Zhang
    • , Margaret R. Karagas
    • , Ulrike Gehring
    • , Carmen J. Marsit
    • , Lawrence J. Beilin
    • , Judith M. Vonk
    • , Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin
    • , Anna Bergström
    • , Anne K. Örtqvist
    • , Susan Ewart
    • , Pia M. Villa
    • , Sophie E. Moore
    • , Gonneke Willemsen
    • , Arnout R. L. Standaert
    • , Siri E. Håberg
    • , Thorkild I. A. Sørensen
    • , Jack A. Taylor
    • , Katri Räikkönen
    • , Ivana V. Yang
    • , Katerina Kechris
    • , Tim S. Nawrot
    • , Matt J. Silver
    • , Yun Yun Gong
    • , Lorenzo Richiardi
    • , Manolis Kogevinas
    • , Augusto A. Litonjua
    • , Brenda Eskenazi
    • , Karen Huen
    • , Hamdi Mbarek
    • , Rachel L. Maguire
    • , Terence Dwyer
    • , Martine Vrijheid
    • , Luigi Bouchard
    • , Andrea A. Baccarelli
    • , Lisa A. Croen
    • , Wilfried Karmaus
    • , Denise Anderson
    • , Maaike de Vries
    • , Sylvain Sebert
    • , Juha Kere
    • , Robert Karlsson
    • , Syed Hasan Arshad
    • , Esa Hämäläinen
    • , Michael N. Routledge
    • , Dorret I. Boomsma
    • , Andrew P. Feinberg
    • , Craig J. Newschaffer
    • , Eva Govarts
    • , Matthieu Moisse
    • , M. Daniele Fallin
    • , Erik Melén
    • , Andrew M. Prentice
    • , Eero Kajantie
    • , Catarina Almqvist
    • , Emily Oken
    • , Dana Dabelea
    • , H. Marike Boezen
    • , Phillip E. Melton
    • , Rosalind J. Wright
    • , Gerard H. Koppelman
    • , Letizia Trevisi
    • , Marie-France Hivert
    • , Jordi Sunyer
    • , Monica C. Munthe-Kaas
    • , Susan K. Murphy
    • , Eva Corpeleijn
    • , Joseph Wiemels
    • , Nina Holland
    • , Zdenko Herceg
    • , Elisabeth B. Binder
    • , George Davey Smith
    • , Vincent W. V. Jaddoe
    • , Rolv T. Lie
    • , Wenche Nystad
    • , Stephanie J. London
    • , Debbie A. Lawlor
    • , Caroline L. Relton
    • , Harold Snieder
    •  & Janine F. Felix
  • Article | | open

    Protective immunity after influenza virus infection is poorly understood. Here, the authors quantify the dynamics of immunity against influenza A virus infections by fitting individual-level mechanistic models to longitudinal serology, and find that the form and dynamics of protection differ between children and adults.

    • Sylvia Ranjeva
    • , Rahul Subramanian
    • , Vicky J. Fang
    • , Gabriel M. Leung
    • , Dennis K. M. Ip
    • , Ranawaka A. P. M. Perera
    • , J. S. Malik Peiris
    • , Benjamin J. Cowling
    •  & Sarah Cobey
  • Article | | open

    Different from GWAS for susceptibility to disease, GWAS for prognosis or survival may be vulnerable to selection bias. Here, Dudbridge et al present an approach to reduce index event bias in simulated and realistic situations, and apply it to GWAS of survival with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and Crohn’s disease prognosis.

    • Frank Dudbridge
    • , Richard J. Allen
    • , Nuala A. Sheehan
    • , A. Floriaan Schmidt
    • , James C. Lee
    • , R. Gisli Jenkins
    • , Louise V. Wain
    • , Aroon D. Hingorani
    •  & Riyaz S. Patel
  • Article | | open

    The genetic underpinnings of alcohol use disorder and consumption are incompletely understood. Here, the authors perform GWAS for Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) Identification Test-Consumption scores and AUD diagnosis from electronic health records of 274,424 individuals and identify a total of 18 associated loci.

    • Henry R. Kranzler
    • , Hang Zhou
    • , Rachel L. Kember
    • , Rachel Vickers Smith
    • , Amy C. Justice
    • , Scott Damrauer
    • , Philip S. Tsao
    • , Derek Klarin
    • , Aris Baras
    • , Jeffrey Reid
    • , John Overton
    • , Daniel J. Rader
    • , Zhongshan Cheng
    • , Janet P. Tate
    • , William C. Becker
    • , John Concato
    • , Ke Xu
    • , Renato Polimanti
    • , Hongyu Zhao
    •  & Joel Gelernter
  • Article | | open

    Lack of knowledge of individual infection history hinders understanding of immunological interactions among DENV serotypes. Here, the authors introduce a framework to infer the relationship between unobserved infection history and subsequent infection and disease risk, and find complex dependencies.

    • Tim K. Tsang
    • , Samson L. Ghebremariam
    • , Lionel Gresh
    • , Aubree Gordon
    • , M. Elizabeth Halloran
    • , Leah C. Katzelnick
    • , Diana Patricia Rojas
    • , Guillermina Kuan
    • , Angel Balmaseda
    • , Jonathan Sugimoto
    • , Eva Harris
    • , Ira M. Longini Jr.
    •  & Yang Yang
  • Article | | open

    In 2014 Guangzhou, China experienced its worse dengue epidemic on record. To determine the reasons for this the authors model historical data under combinations of four time-varying factors and find that past epidemics were limited by one or more unfavourable conditions, but the 2014 epidemic faced none of these restraints.

    • Rachel J. Oidtman
    • , Shengjie Lai
    • , Zhoujie Huang
    • , Juan Yang
    • , Amir S. Siraj
    • , Robert C. Reiner Jr.
    • , Andrew J. Tatem
    • , T. Alex Perkins
    •  & Hongjie Yu
  • Article | | open

    Oral ulcerations are sores of the mucous membrane of the mouth and highly prevalent in the population. Here, in a genome-wide association study, the authors identify 97 loci associated with mouth ulcers highlighting genes involved in T cell-mediated immunity and TH1 responses.

    • Tom Dudding
    • , Simon Haworth
    • , Penelope A. Lind
    • , J. Fah Sathirapongsasuti
    • , Michelle Agee
    • , Babak Alipanahi
    • , Adam Auton
    • , Robert K. Bell
    • , Katarzyna Bryc
    • , Sarah L. Elson
    • , Pierre Fontanillas
    • , Nicholas A. Furlotte
    • , Barry Hicks
    • , David A. Hinds
    • , Karen E. Huber
    • , Ethan M. Jewett
    • , Yunxuan Jiang
    • , Aaron Kleinman
    • , Keng-Han Lin
    • , Nadia K. Litterman
    • , Jennifer C. McCeight
    • , Matthew H. McIntyre
    • , Kimberly F. McManus
    • , Joanna L. Mountain
    • , Elizabeth S. Noblin
    • , Carrie A. M. Northover
    • , Steven J. Pitts
    • , G. David Poznik
    • , Janie F. Shelton
    • , Suyash Shringarpure
    • , Chao Tian
    • , Vladimir Vacic
    • , Xin Wang
    • , Catherine H. Wilson
    • , Joyce Y. Tung
    • , Ruth Mitchell
    • , Lucía Colodro-Conde
    • , Sarah E. Medland
    • , Scott Gordon
    • , Benjamin Elsworth
    • , Lavinia Paternoster
    • , Paul W. Franks
    • , Steven J. Thomas
    • , Nicholas G. Martin
    •  & Nicholas J. Timpson
  • Article | | open

    Estimates of the burden of malaria often don't take wider, indirect effects on overall health into consideration. Here, Uyoga et al. estimate the indirect impact of malaria on children’s health in a case-control study, using the sickle cell trait as a proxy indicator for an effective intervention.

    • Sophie Uyoga
    • , Alex W. Macharia
    • , Carolyne M. Ndila
    • , Gideon Nyutu
    • , Mohammed Shebe
    • , Kennedy O. Awuondo
    • , Neema Mturi
    • , Norbert Peshu
    • , Benjamin Tsofa
    • , J. Anthony G. Scott
    • , Kathryn Maitland
    •  & Thomas N. Williams
  • Article | | open

    Here, the authors explore the relationship between socioeconomic position (SEP) across the life course and inflammation in a multi-cohort study and show that educational attainment is most strongly related to inflammation, suggesting that socioeconomic disadvantage in young adulthood is independently associated with later life inflammation.

    • Eloïse Berger
    • , Raphaële Castagné
    • , Marc Chadeau-Hyam
    • , Murielle Bochud
    • , Angelo d’Errico
    • , Martina Gandini
    • , Maryam Karimi
    • , Mika Kivimäki
    • , Vittorio Krogh
    • , Michael Marmot
    • , Salvatore Panico
    • , Martin Preisig
    • , Fulvio Ricceri
    • , Carlotta Sacerdote
    • , Andrew Steptoe
    • , Silvia Stringhini
    • , Rosario Tumino
    • , Paolo Vineis
    • , Cyrille Delpierre
    •  & Michelle Kelly-Irving
  • Article | | open

    Sex-stratified medicine is an important and understudied field. Here the authors investigate in a systematic study of the Danish population differences in incidence, risk, and several aspects of diagnoses between sexes and find differences across all areas of disease.

    • David Westergaard
    • , Pope Moseley
    • , Freja Karuna Hemmingsen Sørup
    • , Pierre Baldi
    •  & Søren Brunak
  • Article | | open

    It is unclear whether the sequence and timing of early life neurodevelopment varies across human populations, excluding the effects of disease or malnutrition. Here, the authors show that children of healthy, urban, educated mothers show very similar development across five geographically diverse populations.

    • José Villar
    • , Michelle Fernandes
    • , Manorama Purwar
    • , Eleonora Staines-Urias
    • , Paola Di Nicola
    • , Leila Cheikh Ismail
    • , Roseline Ochieng
    • , Fernando Barros
    • , Elaine Albernaz
    • , Cesar Victora
    • , Naina Kunnawar
    • , Sophie Temple
    • , Francesca Giuliani
    • , Tamsin Sandells
    • , Maria Carvalho
    • , Eric Ohuma
    • , Yasmin Jaffer
    • , Alison Noble
    • , Michael Gravett
    • , Ruyan Pang
    • , Ann Lambert
    • , Enrico Bertino
    • , Aris Papageorghiou
    • , Cutberto Garza
    • , Alan Stein
    • , Zulfiqar Bhutta
    •  & Stephen Kennedy
  • Article | | open

    Similarities in cancers can be studied to interrogate their etiology. Here, the authors use genome-wide association study summary statistics from six cancer types based on 296,215 cases and 301,319 controls of European ancestry, showing that solid tumours arising from different tissues share a degree of common germline genetic basis.

    • Xia Jiang
    • , Hilary K. Finucane
    • , Fredrick R. Schumacher
    • , Stephanie L. Schmit
    • , Jonathan P. Tyrer
    • , Younghun Han
    • , Kyriaki Michailidou
    • , Corina Lesseur
    • , Karoline B. Kuchenbaecker
    • , Joe Dennis
    • , David V. Conti
    • , Graham Casey
    • , Mia M. Gaudet
    • , Jeroen R. Huyghe
    • , Demetrius Albanes
    • , Melinda C. Aldrich
    • , Angeline S. Andrew
    • , Irene L. Andrulis
    • , Hoda Anton-Culver
    • , Antonis C. Antoniou
    • , Natalia N. Antonenkova
    • , Susanne M. Arnold
    • , Kristan J. Aronson
    • , Banu K. Arun
    • , Elisa V. Bandera
    • , Rosa B. Barkardottir
    • , Daniel R. Barnes
    • , Jyotsna Batra
    • , Matthias W. Beckmann
    • , Javier Benitez
    • , Sara Benlloch
    • , Andrew Berchuck
    • , Sonja I. Berndt
    • , Heike Bickeböller
    • , Stephanie A. Bien
    • , Carl Blomqvist
    • , Stefania Boccia
    • , Natalia V. Bogdanova
    • , Stig E. Bojesen
    • , Manjeet K. Bolla
    • , Hiltrud Brauch
    • , Hermann Brenner
    • , James D. Brenton
    • , Mark N. Brook
    • , Joan Brunet
    • , Hans Brunnström
    • , Daniel D. Buchanan
    • , Barbara Burwinkel
    • , Ralf Butzow
    • , Gabriella Cadoni
    • , Trinidad Caldés
    • , Maria A. Caligo
    • , Ian Campbell
    • , Peter T. Campbell
    • , Géraldine Cancel-Tassin
    • , Lisa Cannon-Albright
    • , Daniele Campa
    • , Neil Caporaso
    • , André L. Carvalho
    • , Andrew T. Chan
    • , Jenny Chang-Claude
    • , Stephen J. Chanock
    • , Chu Chen
    • , David C. Christiani
    • , Kathleen B. M. Claes
    • , Frank Claessens
    • , Judith Clements
    • , J. Margriet Collée
    • , Marcia Cruz Correa
    • , Fergus J. Couch
    • , Angela Cox
    • , Julie M. Cunningham
    • , Cezary Cybulski
    • , Kamila Czene
    • , Mary B. Daly
    • , Anna deFazio
    • , Peter Devilee
    • , Orland Diez
    • , Manuela Gago-Dominguez
    • , Jenny L. Donovan
    • , Thilo Dörk
    • , Eric J. Duell
    • , Alison M. Dunning
    • , Miriam Dwek
    • , Diana M. Eccles
    • , Christopher K. Edlund
    • , Digna R Velez Edwards
    • , Carolina Ellberg
    • , D. Gareth Evans
    • , Peter A. Fasching
    • , Robert L. Ferris
    • , Triantafillos Liloglou
    • , Jane C. Figueiredo
    • , Olivia Fletcher
    • , Renée T. Fortner
    • , Florentia Fostira
    • , Silvia Franceschi
    • , Eitan Friedman
    • , Steven J. Gallinger
    • , Patricia A. Ganz
    • , Judy Garber
    • , José A. García-Sáenz
    • , Simon A. Gayther
    • , Graham G. Giles
    • , Andrew K. Godwin
    • , Mark S. Goldberg
    • , David E. Goldgar
    • , Ellen L. Goode
    • , Marc T. Goodman
    • , Gary Goodman
    • , Kjell Grankvist
    • , Mark H. Greene
    • , Henrik Gronberg
    • , Jacek Gronwald
    • , Pascal Guénel
    • , Niclas Håkansson
    • , Per Hall
    • , Ute Hamann
    • , Freddie C. Hamdy
    • , Robert J. Hamilton
    • , Jochen Hampe
    • , Aage Haugen
    • , Florian Heitz
    • , Rolando Herrero
    • , Peter Hillemanns
    • , Michael Hoffmeister
    • , Estrid Høgdall
    • , Yun-Chul Hong
    • , John L. Hopper
    • , Richard Houlston
    • , Peter J. Hulick
    • , David J. Hunter
    • , David G. Huntsman
    • , Gregory Idos
    • , Evgeny N. Imyanitov
    • , Sue Ann Ingles
    • , Claudine Isaacs
    • , Anna Jakubowska
    • , Paul James
    • , Mark A. Jenkins
    • , Mattias Johansson
    • , Mikael Johansson
    • , Esther M. John
    • , Amit D. Joshi
    • , Radka Kaneva
    • , Beth Y. Karlan
    • , Linda E. Kelemen
    • , Tabea Kühl
    • , Kay-Tee Khaw
    • , Elza Khusnutdinova
    • , Adam S. Kibel
    • , Lambertus A. Kiemeney
    • , Jeri Kim
    • , Susanne K. Kjaer
    • , Julia A. Knight
    • , Manolis Kogevinas
    • , Zsofia Kote-Jarai
    • , Stella Koutros
    • , Vessela N. Kristensen
    • , Jolanta Kupryjanczyk
    • , Martin Lacko
    • , Stephan Lam
    • , Diether Lambrechts
    • , Maria Teresa Landi
    • , Philip Lazarus
    • , Nhu D. Le
    • , Eunjung Lee
    • , Flavio Lejbkowicz
    • , Heinz-Josef Lenz
    • , Goska Leslie
    • , Davor Lessel
    • , Jenny Lester
    • , Douglas A. Levine
    • , Li Li
    • , Christopher I. Li
    • , Annika Lindblom
    • , Noralane M. Lindor
    • , Geoffrey Liu
    • , Fotios Loupakis
    • , Jan Lubiński
    • , Lovise Maehle
    • , Christiane Maier
    • , Arto Mannermaa
    • , Loic Le Marchand
    • , Sara Margolin
    • , Taymaa May
    • , Lesley McGuffog
    • , Alfons Meindl
    • , Pooja Middha
    • , Austin Miller
    • , Roger L. Milne
    • , Robert J. MacInnis
    • , Francesmary Modugno
    • , Marco Montagna
    • , Victor Moreno
    • , Kirsten B. Moysich
    • , Lorelei Mucci
    • , Kenneth Muir
    • , Anna Marie Mulligan
    • , Katherine L. Nathanson
    • , David E. Neal
    • , Andrew R. Ness
    • , Susan L. Neuhausen
    • , Heli Nevanlinna
    • , Polly A. Newcomb
    • , Lisa F. Newcomb
    • , Finn Cilius Nielsen
    • , Liene Nikitina-Zake
    • , Børge G. Nordestgaard
    • , Robert L. Nussbaum
    • , Kenneth Offit
    • , Edith Olah
    • , Ali Amin Al Olama
    • , Olufunmilayo I. Olopade
    • , Andrew F. Olshan
    • , Håkan Olsson
    • , Ana Osorio
    • , Hardev Pandha
    • , Jong Y. Park
    • , Nora Pashayan
    • , Michael T. Parsons
    • , Tanja Pejovic
    • , Kathryn L. Penney
    • , Wilbert H M. Peters
    • , Catherine M. Phelan
    • , Amanda I. Phipps
    • , Dijana Plaseska-Karanfilska
    • , Miranda Pring
    • , Darya Prokofyeva
    • , Paolo Radice
    • , Kari Stefansson
    • , Susan J. Ramus
    • , Leon Raskin
    • , Gad Rennert
    • , Hedy S. Rennert
    • , Elizabeth J. van Rensburg
    • , Marjorie J. Riggan
    • , Harvey A. Risch
    • , Angela Risch
    • , Monique J. Roobol
    • , Barry S. Rosenstein
    • , Mary Anne Rossing
    • , Kim De Ruyck
    • , Emmanouil Saloustros
    • , Dale P. Sandler
    • , Elinor J. Sawyer
    • , Matthew B. Schabath
    • , Johanna Schleutker
    • , Marjanka K. Schmidt
    • , V. Wendy Setiawan
    • , Hongbing Shen
    • , Erin M. Siegel
    • , Weiva Sieh
    • , Christian F. Singer
    • , Martha L. Slattery
    • , Karina Dalsgaard Sorensen
    • , Melissa C. Southey
    • , Amanda B. Spurdle
    • , Janet L. Stanford
    • , Victoria L. Stevens
    • , Sebastian Stintzing
    • , Jennifer Stone
    • , Karin Sundfeldt
    • , Rebecca Sutphen
    • , Anthony J. Swerdlow
    • , Eloiza H. Tajara
    • , Catherine M. Tangen
    • , Adonina Tardon
    • , Jack A. Taylor
    • , M. Dawn Teare
    • , Manuel R. Teixeira
    • , Mary Beth Terry
    • , Kathryn L. Terry
    • , Stephen N. Thibodeau
    • , Mads Thomassen
    • , Line Bjørge
    • , Marc Tischkowitz
    • , Amanda E. Toland
    • , Diana Torres
    • , Paul A. Townsend
    • , Ruth C. Travis
    • , Nadine Tung
    • , Shelley S. Tworoger
    • , Cornelia M. Ulrich
    • , Nawaid Usmani
    • , Celine M. Vachon
    • , Els Van Nieuwenhuysen
    • , Ana Vega
    • , Miguel Elías Aguado-Barrera
    • , Qin Wang
    • , Penelope M. Webb
    • , Clarice R. Weinberg
    • , Stephanie Weinstein
    • , Mark C. Weissler
    • , Jeffrey N. Weitzel
    • , Catharine M. L. West
    • , Emily White
    • , Alice S. Whittemore
    • , H-Erich Wichmann
    • , Fredrik Wiklund
    • , Robert Winqvist
    • , Alicja Wolk
    • , Penella Woll
    • , Michael Woods
    • , Anna H. Wu
    • , Xifeng Wu
    • , Drakoulis Yannoukakos
    • , Wei Zheng
    • , Shanbeh Zienolddiny
    • , Argyrios Ziogas
    • , Kristin K. Zorn
    • , Jacqueline M. Lane
    • , Richa Saxena
    • , Duncan Thomas
    • , Rayjean J. Hung
    • , Brenda Diergaarde
    • , James McKay
    • , Ulrike Peters
    • , Li Hsu
    • , Montserrat García-Closas
    • , Rosalind A. Eeles
    • , Georgia Chenevix-Trench
    • , Paul J. Brennan
    • , Christopher A. Haiman
    • , Jacques Simard
    • , Douglas F. Easton
    • , Stephen B. Gruber
    • , Paul D. P. Pharoah
    • , Alkes L. Price
    • , Bogdan Pasaniuc
    • , Christopher I. Amos
    • , Peter Kraft
    •  & Sara Lindström
  • Article | | open

    Population structure can bias the results of genetic and epidemiological analysis. Here, Haworth et al. report that fine-scale structure is detectable in apparently homogeneous samples such as ALSPAC when measured very precisely, and remains detectable in UK Biobank despite conventional approaches to account for it.

    • Simon Haworth
    • , Ruth Mitchell
    • , Laura Corbin
    • , Kaitlin H. Wade
    • , Tom Dudding
    • , Ashley Budu-Aggrey
    • , David Carslake
    • , Gibran Hemani
    • , Lavinia Paternoster
    • , George Davey Smith
    • , Neil Davies
    • , Daniel J. Lawson
    •  & Nicholas J. Timpson
  • Article | | open

    Real-time disease surveillance can aid mitigation of outbreaks. Here, Lu et al. combine an approach using Google search and EHR data with an approach leveraging spatiotemporal synchronicities of influenza activity across states to improve state-level influenza activity estimates in the US.

    • Fred S. Lu
    • , Mohammad W. Hattab
    • , Cesar Leonardo Clemente
    • , Matthew Biggerstaff
    •  & Mauricio Santillana
  • Article | | open

    Relevance of indirect protection of household members of vaccinees is unclear. Here, Tsang et al. quantify the direct and indirect protection of vaccination in a randomized controlled trial and show that benefits of individual vaccination remain important even when other household members are vaccinated.

    • Tim K. Tsang
    • , Vicky J. Fang
    • , Dennis K. M. Ip
    • , Ranawaka A. P. M. Perera
    • , Hau Chi So
    • , Gabriel M. Leung
    • , J. S. Malik Peiris
    • , Benjamin J. Cowling
    •  & Simon Cauchemez
  • Article | | open

    While human lifespan is only moderately heritable, “getting old” runs in families. Here, van den Berg et al. study mortality data from three-generation cohorts to define a threshold for longevity and find that individuals have an increasing survival advantage with each additional relative in the top 10% survivors of their birth cohort.

    • Niels van den Berg
    • , Mar Rodríguez-Girondo
    • , Ingrid K. van Dijk
    • , Rick J. Mourits
    • , Kees Mandemakers
    • , Angelique A. P. O. Janssens
    • , Marian Beekman
    • , Ken R. Smith
    •  & P. Eline Slagboom
  • Article | | open

    Robust surveillance methods are needed for trachoma control and recrudescence monitoring, but existing methods have limitations. Here, Pinsent et al. analyse data from nine trachoma-endemic populations and provide operational thresholds for interpretation of serological data in low transmission and post-elimination settings.

    • Amy Pinsent
    • , Anthony W. Solomon
    • , Robin L. Bailey
    • , Rhiannon Bid
    • , Anaseini Cama
    • , Deborah Dean
    • , Brook Goodhew
    • , Sarah E. Gwyn
    • , Kelvin R. Jack
    • , Ram Prasad Kandel
    • , Mike Kama
    • , Patrick Massae
    • , Colin Macleod
    • , David C. W. Mabey
    • , Stephanie Migchelsen
    • , Andreas Müller
    • , Frank Sandi
    • , Oliver Sokana
    • , Raebwebwe Taoaba
    • , Rabebe Tekeraoi
    • , Diana L. Martin
    •  & Michael. T. White
  • Article | | open

    Nutritional experience can have phenotypic consequences in subsequent generations, as is evident from studies in animals and plants. Here, Vågerö et al. find in a large three-generation cohort that access to food in the paternal grandfather associates with all-cause and cancer mortality in male grandchildren.

    • Denny Vågerö
    • , Pia R. Pinger
    • , Vanda Aronsson
    •  & Gerard J. van den Berg
  • Article | | open

    Studying the genetic underpinnings of physical activity and sleep duration can be confounded by self-reporting. Here, Doherty et al. use data from 91,105 UK Biobank participants, whose activity had been monitored for a week by a wearable device, for genome-wide association analysis and identify 14 loci.

    • Aiden Doherty
    • , Karl Smith-Byrne
    • , Teresa Ferreira
    • , Michael V. Holmes
    • , Chris Holmes
    • , Sara L. Pulit
    •  & Cecilia M. Lindgren
  • Article | | open

    Typhoid fever is caused by the bacterium Salmonella Typhi. Here, Park et al. analyse the genomes of 249 S. Typhi isolates from 11 sub-Saharan African countries, identifying genes and plasmids associated with antibiotic resistance and showing that multi-drug resistance is highly pervasive in sub-Saharan Africa.

    • Se Eun Park
    • , Duy Thanh Pham
    • , Christine Boinett
    • , Vanessa K. Wong
    • , Gi Deok Pak
    • , Ursula Panzner
    • , Ligia Maria Cruz Espinoza
    • , Vera von Kalckreuth
    • , Justin Im
    • , Heidi Schütt-Gerowitt
    • , John A. Crump
    • , Robert F. Breiman
    • , Yaw Adu-Sarkodie
    • , Ellis Owusu-Dabo
    • , Raphaël Rakotozandrindrainy
    • , Abdramane Bassiahi Soura
    • , Abraham Aseffa
    • , Nagla Gasmelseed
    • , Karen H. Keddy
    • , Jürgen May
    • , Amy Gassama Sow
    • , Peter Aaby
    • , Holly M. Biggs
    • , Julian T. Hertz
    • , Joel M. Montgomery
    • , Leonard Cosmas
    • , Beatrice Olack
    • , Barry Fields
    • , Nimako Sarpong
    • , Tsiriniaina Jean Luco Razafindrabe
    • , Tiana Mirana Raminosoa
    • , Leon Parfait Kabore
    • , Emmanuel Sampo
    • , Mekonnen Teferi
    • , Biruk Yeshitela
    • , Muna Ahmed El Tayeb
    • , Arvinda Sooka
    • , Christian G. Meyer
    • , Ralf Krumkamp
    • , Denise Myriam Dekker
    • , Anna Jaeger
    • , Sven Poppert
    • , Adama Tall
    • , Aissatou Niang
    • , Morten Bjerregaard-Andersen
    • , Sandra Valborg Løfberg
    • , Hye Jin Seo
    • , Hyon Jin Jeon
    • , Jessica Fung Deerin
    • , Jinkyung Park
    • , Frank Konings
    • , Mohammad Ali
    • , John D. Clemens
    • , Peter Hughes
    • , Juliet Nsimire Sendagala
    • , Tobias Vudriko
    • , Robert Downing
    • , Usman N. Ikumapayi
    • , Grant A. Mackenzie
    • , Stephen Obaro
    • , Silvia Argimon
    • , David M. Aanensen
    • , Andrew Page
    • , Jacqueline A. Keane
    • , Sebastian Duchene
    • , Zoe Dyson
    • , Kathryn E. Holt
    • , Gordon Dougan
    • , Florian Marks
    •  & Stephen Baker
  • Article | | open

    Indoor residual spraying is a commonly used method for mosquito, and malaria, control and there are a number of available insecticides that are available for this. Here, the authors evaluate the efficacy of widely-used and novel insecticides against pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes.

    • Ellie Sherrard-Smith
    • , Jamie T. Griffin
    • , Peter Winskill
    • , Vincent Corbel
    • , Cédric Pennetier
    • , Armel Djénontin
    • , Sarah Moore
    • , Jason H. Richardson
    • , Pie Müller
    • , Constant Edi
    • , Natacha Protopopoff
    • , Richard Oxborough
    • , Fiacre Agossa
    • , Raphael N’Guessan
    • , Mark Rowland
    •  & Thomas S. Churcher
  • Article | | open

    Treatment-seeking for fever is widely used to estimate treatment of childhood infections, but cross-country comparisons are problematic. Here, the authors estimate the probability of seeking treatment for fever at public facilities across 29 countries by quantifying person-level latent variables.

    • Victor A. Alegana
    • , Joseph Maina
    • , Paul O. Ouma
    • , Peter M. Macharia
    • , Jim Wright
    • , Peter M. Atkinson
    • , Emelda A. Okiro
    • , Robert W. Snow
    •  & Andrew J. Tatem
  • Article | | open

    The decision when to stop an intervention is a critical component of parasite elimination programmes, but reliance on surveillance data alone can be inaccurate. Here, Michael et al. combine parasite transmission model predictions with disease survey data to more reliably determine when interventions can be stopped.

    • Edwin Michael
    • , Morgan E. Smith
    • , Moses N. Katabarwa
    • , Edson Byamukama
    • , Emily Griswold
    • , Peace Habomugisha
    • , Thomson Lakwo
    • , Edridah Tukahebwa
    • , Emmanuel S. Miri
    • , Abel Eigege
    • , Evelyn Ngige
    • , Thomas R. Unnasch
    •  & Frank O. Richards
  • Article | | open

    The basis for associations between lung cancer and major histocompatibility complex genes is not completely understood. Here the authors further consider genetic variation within the MHC region in lung cancer patients and identify independent associations within HLA genes that explain MHC lung cancer associations in Europeans and Asian populations.

    • Aida Ferreiro-Iglesias
    • , Corina Lesseur
    • , James McKay
    • , Rayjean J. Hung
    • , Younghun Han
    • , Xuchen Zong
    • , David Christiani
    • , Mattias Johansson
    • , Xiangjun Xiao
    • , Yafang Li
    • , David C. Qian
    • , Xuemei Ji
    • , Geoffrey Liu
    • , Neil Caporaso
    • , Ghislaine Scelo
    • , David Zaridze
    • , Anush Mukeriya
    • , Milica Kontic
    • , Simona Ognjanovic
    • , Jolanta Lissowska
    • , Małgorzata Szołkowska
    • , Beata Swiatkowska
    • , Vladimir Janout
    • , Ivana Holcatova
    • , Ciprian Bolca
    • , Milan Savic
    • , Miodrag Ognjanovic
    • , Stig Egil Bojesen
    • , Xifeng Wu
    • , Demetrios Albanes
    • , Melinda C. Aldrich
    • , Adonina Tardon
    • , Ana Fernandez-Somoano
    • , Guillermo Fernandez-Tardon
    • , Loic Le Marchand
    • , Gadi Rennert
    • , Chu Chen
    • , Jennifer Doherty
    • , Gary Goodman
    • , Heike Bickeböller
    • , H-Erich Wichmann
    • , Angela Risch
    • , Albert Rosenberger
    • , Hongbing Shen
    • , Juncheng Dai
    • , John K. Field
    • , Michael Davies
    • , Penella Woll
    • , M. Dawn Teare
    • , Lambertus A. Kiemeney
    • , Erik H. F. M. van der Heijden
    • , Jian-Min Yuan
    • , Yun-Chul Hong
    • , Aage Haugen
    • , Shanbeh Zienolddiny
    • , Stephen Lam
    • , Ming-Sound Tsao
    • , Mikael Johansson
    • , Kjell Grankvist
    • , Matthew B. Schabath
    • , Angeline Andrew
    • , Eric Duell
    • , Olle Melander
    • , Hans Brunnström
    • , Philip Lazarus
    • , Susanne Arnold
    • , Stacey Slone
    • , Jinyoung Byun
    • , Ahsan Kamal
    • , Dakai Zhu
    • , Maria Teresa Landi
    • , Christopher I. Amos
    •  & Paul Brennan
  • Article | | open

    Pulmonary function is influenced by environmental factors, lifestyle, and genetics. Here, in a multiethnic GWAS meta-analysis for pulmonary function traits, the authors identify over 50 additional genetic loci, a subset of which are specific for European, African, Asian, or Hispanic/Latino ancestry.

    • Annah B. Wyss
    • , Tamar Sofer
    • , Mi Kyeong Lee
    • , Natalie Terzikhan
    • , Jennifer N. Nguyen
    • , Lies Lahousse
    • , Jeanne C. Latourelle
    • , Albert Vernon Smith
    • , Traci M. Bartz
    • , Mary F. Feitosa
    • , Wei Gao
    • , Tarunveer S. Ahluwalia
    • , Wenbo Tang
    • , Christopher Oldmeadow
    • , Qing Duan
    • , Kim de Jong
    • , Mary K. Wojczynski
    • , Xin-Qun Wang
    • , Raymond Noordam
    • , Fernando Pires Hartwig
    • , Victoria E. Jackson
    • , Tianyuan Wang
    • , Ma’en Obeidat
    • , Brian D. Hobbs
    • , Tianxiao Huan
    • , Hongsheng Gui
    • , Margaret M. Parker
    • , Donglei Hu
    • , Lauren S. Mogil
    • , Gleb Kichaev
    • , Jianping Jin
    • , Mariaelisa Graff
    • , Tamara B. Harris
    • , Ravi Kalhan
    • , Susan R. Heckbert
    • , Lavinia Paternoster
    • , Kristin M. Burkart
    • , Yongmei Liu
    • , Elizabeth G. Holliday
    • , James G. Wilson
    • , Judith M. Vonk
    • , Jason L. Sanders
    • , R. Graham Barr
    • , Renée de Mutsert
    • , Ana Maria Baptista Menezes
    • , Hieab H. H. Adams
    • , Maarten van den Berge
    • , Roby Joehanes
    • , Albert M. Levin
    • , Jennifer Liberto
    • , Lenore J. Launer
    • , Alanna C. Morrison
    • , Colleen M. Sitlani
    • , Juan C. Celedón
    • , Stephen B. Kritchevsky
    • , Rodney J. Scott
    • , Kaare Christensen
    • , Jerome I. Rotter
    • , Tobias N. Bonten
    • , Fernando César Wehrmeister
    • , Yohan Bossé
    • , Shujie Xiao
    • , Sam Oh
    • , Nora Franceschini
    • , Jennifer A. Brody
    • , Robert C. Kaplan
    • , Kurt Lohman
    • , Mark McEvoy
    • , Michael A. Province
    • , Frits R. Rosendaal
    • , Kent D. Taylor
    • , David C. Nickle
    • , L. Keoki Williams
    • , Esteban G. Burchard
    • , Heather E. Wheeler
    • , Don D. Sin
    • , Vilmundur Gudnason
    • , Kari E. North
    • , Myriam Fornage
    • , Bruce M. Psaty
    • , Richard H. Myers
    • , George O’Connor
    • , Torben Hansen
    • , Cathy C. Laurie
    • , Patricia A. Cassano
    • , Joohon Sung
    • , Woo Jin Kim
    • , John R. Attia
    • , Leslie Lange
    • , H. Marike Boezen
    • , Bharat Thyagarajan
    • , Stephen S. Rich
    • , Dennis O. Mook-Kanamori
    • , Bernardo Lessa Horta
    • , André G. Uitterlinden
    • , Hae Kyung Im
    • , Michael H. Cho
    • , Guy G. Brusselle
    • , Sina A. Gharib
    • , Josée Dupuis
    • , Ani Manichaikul
    •  & Stephanie J. London
  • Article | | open

    There is increasing urgency to understand the spatiotemporal dynamics of dengue in non-endemic regions. Here, the authors reconstruct likely dengue transmission chains in the city of Porto Alegre based on geo-located cases only, and find that most transmission events occur over short-distances.

    • Giorgio Guzzetta
    • , Cecilia A. Marques-Toledo
    • , Roberto Rosà
    • , Mauro Teixeira
    •  & Stefano Merler
  • Article | | open

    Plasmodium vivax incidence in Malaysia has declined markedly over the last decade, despite evidence of chloroquine resistance. Here, Auburn et al. compare population structure of P. vivax in Malaysia to regions with intermediate and high transmission and identify genetic regions under putative selection.

    • Sarah Auburn
    • , Ernest D. Benavente
    • , Olivo Miotto
    • , Richard D. Pearson
    • , Roberto Amato
    • , Matthew J. Grigg
    • , Bridget E. Barber
    • , Timothy William
    • , Irene Handayuni
    • , Jutta Marfurt
    • , Hidayat Trimarsanto
    • , Rintis Noviyanti
    • , Kanlaya Sriprawat
    • , Francois Nosten
    • , Susana Campino
    • , Taane G. Clark
    • , Nicholas M. Anstey
    • , Dominic P. Kwiatkowski
    •  & Ric N. Price
  • Article | | open

    During the last Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa, a large amount of viral genomic data was obtained. Here, Dellicour et al. use phylodynamic approaches to assess effect of intervention strategies such as border closures.

    • Simon Dellicour
    • , Guy Baele
    • , Gytis Dudas
    • , Nuno R. Faria
    • , Oliver G. Pybus
    • , Marc A. Suchard
    • , Andrew Rambaut
    •  & Philippe Lemey
  • Article | | open

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Shigella species is a public health concern. Here, Baker et al. show how horizontal transfer of an AMR plasmid among Shigella species contributes to epidemics in men who have sex with men in England.

    • Kate S. Baker
    • , Timothy J. Dallman
    • , Nigel Field
    • , Tristan Childs
    • , Holly Mitchell
    • , Martin Day
    • , François-Xavier Weill
    • , Sophie Lefèvre
    • , Mathieu Tourdjman
    • , Gwenda Hughes
    • , Claire Jenkins
    •  & Nicholas Thomson
  • Article | | open

    The authors examine the role of monkey populations in the sylvatic cycle of chikungunya virus in the Kédougou region, Senegal. The authors show that monkeys are amplification hosts, as opposed to reservoir hosts for infection. These findings expand our knowledge of the transmission dynamics of chikungunya virus in this region of Senegal.

    • Benjamin M. Althouse
    • , Mathilde Guerbois
    • , Derek A. T. Cummings
    • , Ousmane M. Diop
    • , Ousmane Faye
    • , Abdourahmane Faye
    • , Diawo Diallo
    • , Bakary Djilocalisse Sadio
    • , Abdourahmane Sow
    • , Oumar Faye
    • , Amadou A. Sall
    • , Mawlouth Diallo
    • , Brenda Benefit
    • , Evan Simons
    • , Douglas M. Watts
    • , Scott C. Weaver
    •  & Kathryn A. Hanley
  • Article | | open

    Individuals with different genotypes may respond differently to environmental variation. Here, Favé et al. find substantial impacts of different environment exposures on the transcriptome and clinical endophenotypes when controlling for genetic ancestry by analyzing data from 1000 individuals from a founder population in Quebec.

    • Marie-Julie Favé
    • , Fabien C. Lamaze
    • , David Soave
    • , Alan Hodgkinson
    • , Héloïse Gauvin
    • , Vanessa Bruat
    • , Jean-Christophe Grenier
    • , Elias Gbeha
    • , Kimberly Skead
    • , Audrey Smargiassi
    • , Markey Johnson
    • , Youssef Idaghdour
    •  & Philip Awadalla
  • Review Article | | open

    Recall-by-Genotype (RbG) is an approach to recall participants from genetic studies based on their specific genotype for further, more extensive phenotyping. Here, the authors discuss examples of RbG as well as practical and ethical considerations and provide an online tool to aid in designing RbG studies.

    • Laura J. Corbin
    • , Vanessa Y. Tan
    • , David A. Hughes
    • , Kaitlin H. Wade
    • , Dirk S. Paul
    • , Katherine E. Tansey
    • , Frances Butcher
    • , Frank Dudbridge
    • , Joanna M. Howson
    • , Momodou W. Jallow
    • , Catherine John
    • , Nathalie Kingston
    • , Cecilia M. Lindgren
    • , Michael O’Donavan
    • , Stephen O’Rahilly
    • , Michael J. Owen
    • , Colin N. A. Palmer
    • , Ewan R. Pearson
    • , Robert A. Scott
    • , David A. van Heel
    • , John Whittaker
    • , Tim Frayling
    • , Martin D. Tobin
    • , Louise V. Wain
    • , George Davey Smith
    • , David M. Evans
    • , Fredrik Karpe
    • , Mark I. McCarthy
    • , John Danesh
    • , Paul W. Franks
    •  & Nicholas J. Timpson
  • Article | | open

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with multiple human pathologic conditions. In a genome-wide association study of 79,366 individuals, Jiang et al. replicate four and identify two new genetic loci for serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and find evidence for a shared genetic basis with autoimmune diseases.

    • Xia Jiang
    • , Paul F. O’Reilly
    • , Hugues Aschard
    • , Yi-Hsiang Hsu
    • , J. Brent Richards
    • , Josée Dupuis
    • , Erik Ingelsson
    • , David Karasik
    • , Stefan Pilz
    • , Diane Berry
    • , Bryan Kestenbaum
    • , Jusheng Zheng
    • , Jianan Luan
    • , Eleni Sofianopoulou
    • , Elizabeth A. Streeten
    • , Demetrius Albanes
    • , Pamela L. Lutsey
    • , Lu Yao
    • , Weihong Tang
    • , Michael J. Econs
    • , Henri Wallaschofski
    • , Henry Völzke
    • , Ang Zhou
    • , Chris Power
    • , Mark I. McCarthy
    • , Erin D. Michos
    • , Eric Boerwinkle
    • , Stephanie J. Weinstein
    • , Neal D. Freedman
    • , Wen-Yi Huang
    • , Natasja M. Van Schoor
    • , Nathalie van der Velde
    • , Lisette C. P. G. M. de Groot
    • , Anke Enneman
    • , L. Adrienne Cupples
    • , Sarah L. Booth
    • , Ramachandran S. Vasan
    • , Ching-Ti Liu
    • , Yanhua Zhou
    • , Samuli Ripatti
    • , Claes Ohlsson
    • , Liesbeth Vandenput
    • , Mattias Lorentzon
    • , Johan G. Eriksson
    • , M. Kyla Shea
    • , Denise K. Houston
    • , Stephen B. Kritchevsky
    • , Yongmei Liu
    • , Kurt K. Lohman
    • , Luigi Ferrucci
    • , Munro Peacock
    • , Christian Gieger
    • , Marian Beekman
    • , Eline Slagboom
    • , Joris Deelen
    • , Diana van Heemst
    • , Marcus E. Kleber
    • , Winfried März
    • , Ian H. de Boer
    • , Alexis C. Wood
    • , Jerome I. Rotter
    • , Stephen S. Rich
    • , Cassianne Robinson-Cohen
    • , Martin den Heijer
    • , Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin
    • , Alana Cavadino
    • , Peter K. Joshi
    • , James F. Wilson
    • , Caroline Hayward
    • , Lars Lind
    • , Karl Michaëlsson
    • , Stella Trompet
    • , M. Carola Zillikens
    • , Andre G. Uitterlinden
    • , Fernando Rivadeneira
    • , Linda Broer
    • , Lina Zgaga
    • , Harry Campbell
    • , Evropi Theodoratou
    • , Susan M. Farrington
    • , Maria Timofeeva
    • , Malcolm G. Dunlop
    • , Ana M. Valdes
    • , Emmi Tikkanen
    • , Terho Lehtimäki
    • , Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen
    • , Mika Kähönen
    • , Olli T. Raitakari
    • , Vera Mikkilä
    • , M. Arfan Ikram
    • , Naveed Sattar
    • , J. Wouter Jukema
    • , Nicholas J. Wareham
    • , Claudia Langenberg
    • , Nita G. Forouhi
    • , Thomas E. Gundersen
    • , Kay-Tee Khaw
    • , Adam S. Butterworth
    • , John Danesh
    • , Timothy Spector
    • , Thomas J. Wang
    • , Elina Hyppönen
    • , Peter Kraft
    •  & Douglas P. Kiel
  • Article | | open

    Understanding global epidemics spread is crucial for preparedness and response. Here the authors introduce an analytical framework to study epidemic spread on air transport networks, and demonstrate its power to estimate key epidemic parameters by application to the recent influenza pandemic and Ebola outbreak.

    • Lin Wang
    •  & Joseph T. Wu
  • Article | | open

    Cancer heritability estimates can be obtained via decomposing trait variance into genetic and other factors. Here, the authors obtain the distribution of absolute genetic risk for 15 common cancers, and they use a number of metrics to show that the genetic risk varies considerably across individuals.

    • Mats Julius Stensrud
    •  & Morten Valberg
  • Article | | open

    Inaccuracy of influenza forecasts based on dynamical models is partly due to nonlinear error growth. Here the authors address the error structure of a compartmental influenza model, and develop a new improved forecast approach combining dynamical error correction and statistical filtering techniques.

    • Sen Pei
    •  & Jeffrey Shaman
  • Article | | open

    Health-related traits are known to vary geographically. Here, Amador and colleagues show that regional variation of obesity-related traits in a Scottish population is influenced more by lifestyle differences than it is by genetic differences.

    • Carmen Amador
    • , Charley Xia
    • , Réka Nagy
    • , Archie Campbell
    • , David Porteous
    • , Blair H. Smith
    • , Nick Hastie
    • , Veronique Vitart
    • , Caroline Hayward
    • , Pau Navarro
    •  & Chris S. Haley
  • Article | | open

    Sleep patterns vary and are associated with health and disease. Here Purcell et al characterize sleep spindle activity in 11,630 individuals and describe age-related changes, genetic influences, and possible confounding effects, serving as a resource for further understanding the physiology of sleep.

    • S. M. Purcell
    • , D. S. Manoach
    • , C. Demanuele
    • , B. E. Cade
    • , S. Mariani
    • , R. Cox
    • , G. Panagiotaropoulou
    • , R. Saxena
    • , J. Q. Pan
    • , J. W. Smoller
    • , S. Redline
    •  & R. Stickgold
  • Article | | open

    Preterm birth (PTB) has high prevalence and PTB infants have greater risk for mortality. Here, Hong and colleagues perform a genome-wide gene × environment interaction analysis and find that maternal COL24A1 variants have a significant interaction with maternal pre-pregnancy obesity in increasing PTB risk.

    • Xiumei Hong
    • , Ke Hao
    • , Hongkai Ji
    • , Shouneng Peng
    • , Ben Sherwood
    • , Antonio Di Narzo
    • , Hui-Ju Tsai
    • , Xin Liu
    • , Irina Burd
    • , Guoying Wang
    • , Yuelong Ji
    • , Deanna Caruso
    • , Guangyun Mao
    • , Tami R. Bartell
    • , Zhongyang Zhang
    • , Colleen Pearson
    • , Linda Heffner
    • , Sandra Cerda
    • , Terri H. Beaty
    • , M. Daniele Fallin
    • , Aviva Lee-Parritz
    • , Barry Zuckerman
    • , Daniel E. Weeks
    •  & Xiaobin Wang
  • Article | | open

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have become a key tool to discover genetic markers for complex traits; however, environmental factors that interact with genes are rarely considered. Here, the authors conduct a GWAS of obesity traits, and find that smoking may alter genetic susceptibilities.

    • Anne E. Justice
    • , Thomas W. Winkler
    • , Mary F. Feitosa
    • , Misa Graff
    • , Virginia A. Fisher
    • , Kristin Young
    • , Llilda Barata
    • , Xuan Deng
    • , Jacek Czajkowski
    • , David Hadley
    • , Julius S. Ngwa
    • , Tarunveer S. Ahluwalia
    • , Audrey Y. Chu
    • , Nancy L. Heard-Costa
    • , Elise Lim
    • , Jeremiah Perez
    • , John D. Eicher
    • , Zoltán Kutalik
    • , Luting Xue
    • , Anubha Mahajan
    • , Frida Renström
    • , Joseph Wu
    • , Qibin Qi
    • , Shafqat Ahmad
    • , Tamuno Alfred
    • , Najaf Amin
    • , Lawrence F. Bielak
    • , Amelie Bonnefond
    • , Jennifer Bragg
    • , Gemma Cadby
    • , Martina Chittani
    • , Scott Coggeshall
    • , Tanguy Corre
    • , Nese Direk
    • , Joel Eriksson
    • , Krista Fischer
    • , Mathias Gorski
    • , Marie Neergaard Harder
    • , Momoko Horikoshi
    • , Tao Huang
    • , Jennifer E. Huffman
    • , Anne U. Jackson
    • , Johanne Marie Justesen
    • , Stavroula Kanoni
    • , Leena Kinnunen
    • , Marcus E. Kleber
    • , Pirjo Komulainen
    • , Meena Kumari
    • , Unhee Lim
    • , Jian'an Luan
    • , Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen
    • , Massimo Mangino
    • , Ani Manichaikul
    • , Jonathan Marten
    • , Rita P. S. Middelberg
    • , Martina Müller-Nurasyid
    • , Pau Navarro
    • , Louis Pérusse
    • , Natalia Pervjakova
    • , Cinzia Sarti
    • , Albert Vernon Smith
    • , Jennifer A. Smith
    • , Alena Stančáková
    • , Rona J. Strawbridge
    • , Heather M. Stringham
    • , Yun Ju Sung
    • , Toshiko Tanaka
    • , Alexander Teumer
    • , Stella Trompet
    • , Sander W. van der Laan
    • , Peter J. van der Most
    • , Jana V. Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk
    • , Sailaja L. Vedantam
    • , Niek Verweij
    • , Jacqueline M. Vink
    • , Veronique Vitart
    • , Ying Wu
    • , Loic Yengo
    • , Weihua Zhang
    • , Jing Hua Zhao
    • , Martina E. Zimmermann
    • , Niha Zubair
    • , Gonçalo R. Abecasis
    • , Linda S. Adair
    • , Saima Afaq
    • , Uzma Afzal
    • , Stephan J. L. Bakker
    • , Traci M. Bartz
    • , John Beilby
    • , Richard N. Bergman
    • , Sven Bergmann
    • , Reiner Biffar
    • , John Blangero
    • , Eric Boerwinkle
    • , Lori L. Bonnycastle
    • , Erwin Bottinger
    • , Daniele Braga
    • , Brendan M. Buckley
    • , Steve Buyske
    • , Harry Campbell
    • , John C. Chambers
    • , Francis S. Collins
    • , Joanne E. Curran
    • , Gert J. de Borst
    • , Anton J. M. de Craen
    • , Eco J. C. de Geus
    • , George Dedoussis
    • , Graciela E. Delgado
    • , Hester M. den Ruijter
    • , Gudny Eiriksdottir
    • , Anna L. Eriksson
    • , Tõnu Esko
    • , Jessica D. Faul
    • , Ian Ford
    • , Terrence Forrester
    • , Karl Gertow
    • , Bruna Gigante
    • , Nicola Glorioso
    • , Jian Gong
    • , Harald Grallert
    • , Tanja B. Grammer
    • , Niels Grarup
    • , Saskia Haitjema
    • , Göran Hallmans
    • , Anders Hamsten
    • , Torben Hansen
    • , Tamara B. Harris
    • , Catharina A. Hartman
    • , Maija Hassinen
    • , Nicholas D. Hastie
    • , Andrew C. Heath
    • , Dena Hernandez
    • , Lucia Hindorff
    • , Lynne J. Hocking
    • , Mette Hollensted
    • , Oddgeir L. Holmen
    • , Georg Homuth
    • , Jouke Jan Hottenga
    • , Jie Huang
    • , Joseph Hung
    • , Nina Hutri-Kähönen
    • , Erik Ingelsson
    • , Alan L. James
    • , John-Olov Jansson
    • , Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin
    • , Min A. Jhun
    • , Marit E. Jørgensen
    • , Markus Juonala
    • , Mika Kähönen
    • , Magnus Karlsson
    • , Heikki A. Koistinen
    • , Ivana Kolcic
    • , Genovefa Kolovou
    • , Charles Kooperberg
    • , Bernhard K. Krämer
    • , Johanna Kuusisto
    • , Kirsti Kvaløy
    • , Timo A. Lakka
    • , Claudia Langenberg
    • , Lenore J. Launer
    • , Karin Leander
    • , Nanette R. Lee
    • , Lars Lind
    • , Cecilia M. Lindgren
    • , Allan Linneberg
    • , Stephane Lobbens
    • , Marie Loh
    • , Mattias Lorentzon
    • , Robert Luben
    • , Gitta Lubke
    • , Anja Ludolph-Donislawski
    • , Sara Lupoli
    • , Pamela A. F. Madden
    • , Reija Männikkö
    • , Pedro Marques-Vidal
    • , Nicholas G. Martin
    • , Colin A. McKenzie
    • , Barbara McKnight
    • , Dan Mellström
    • , Cristina Menni
    • , Grant W. Montgomery
    • , AW (Bill) Musk
    • , Narisu Narisu
    • , Matthias Nauck
    • , Ilja M. Nolte
    • , Albertine J. Oldehinkel
    • , Matthias Olden
    • , Ken K. Ong
    • , Sandosh Padmanabhan
    • , Patricia A. Peyser
    • , Charlotta Pisinger
    • , David J. Porteous
    • , Olli T. Raitakari
    • , Tuomo Rankinen
    • , D. C. Rao
    • , Laura J. Rasmussen-Torvik
    • , Rajesh Rawal
    • , Treva Rice
    • , Paul M. Ridker
    • , Lynda M. Rose
    • , Stephanie A. Bien
    • , Igor Rudan
    • , Serena Sanna
    • , Mark A. Sarzynski
    • , Naveed Sattar
    • , Kai Savonen
    • , David Schlessinger
    • , Salome Scholtens
    • , Claudia Schurmann
    • , Robert A. Scott
    • , Bengt Sennblad
    • , Marten A. Siemelink
    • , Günther Silbernagel
    • , P Eline Slagboom
    • , Harold Snieder
    • , Jan A. Staessen
    • , David J. Stott
    • , Morris A. Swertz
    • , Amy J. Swift
    • , Kent D. Taylor
    • , Bamidele O. Tayo
    • , Barbara Thorand
    • , Dorothee Thuillier
    • , Jaakko Tuomilehto
    • , Andre G. Uitterlinden
    • , Liesbeth Vandenput
    • , Marie-Claude Vohl
    • , Henry Völzke
    • , Judith M. Vonk
    • , Gérard Waeber
    • , Melanie Waldenberger
    • , R. G. J. Westendorp
    • , Sarah Wild
    • , Gonneke Willemsen
    • , Bruce H. R. Wolffenbuttel
    • , Andrew Wong
    • , Alan F. Wright
    • , Wei Zhao
    • , M Carola Zillikens
    • , Damiano Baldassarre
    • , Beverley Balkau
    • , Stefania Bandinelli
    • , Carsten A. Böger
    • , Dorret I. Boomsma
    • , Claude Bouchard
    • , Marcel Bruinenberg
    • , Daniel I. Chasman
    • , Yii-DerIda Chen
    • , Peter S. Chines
    • , Richard S. Cooper
    • , Francesco Cucca
    • , Daniele Cusi
    • , Ulf de Faire
    • , Luigi Ferrucci
    • , Paul W. Franks
    • , Philippe Froguel
    • , Penny Gordon-Larsen
    • , Hans- Jörgen Grabe
    • , Vilmundur Gudnason
    • , Christopher A. Haiman
    • , Caroline Hayward
    • , Kristian Hveem
    • , Andrew D. Johnson
    • , J Wouter Jukema
    • , Sharon L. R. Kardia
    • , Mika Kivimaki
    • , Jaspal S. Kooner
    • , Diana Kuh
    • , Markku Laakso
    • , Terho Lehtimäki
    • , Loic Le Marchand
    • , Winfried März
    • , Mark I. McCarthy
    • , Andres Metspalu
    • , Andrew P. Morris
    • , Claes Ohlsson
    • , Lyle J. Palmer
    • , Gerard Pasterkamp
    • , Oluf Pedersen
    • , Annette Peters
    • , Ulrike Peters
    • , Ozren Polasek
    • , Bruce M. Psaty
    • , Lu Qi
    • , Rainer Rauramaa
    • , Blair H. Smith
    • , Thorkild I. A. Sørensen
    • , Konstantin Strauch
    • , Henning Tiemeier
    • , Elena Tremoli
    • , Pim van der Harst
    • , Henrik Vestergaard
    • , Peter Vollenweider
    • , Nicholas J. Wareham
    • , David R. Weir
    • , John B. Whitfield
    • , James F. Wilson
    • , Jessica Tyrrell
    • , Timothy M. Frayling
    • , Inês Barroso
    • , Michael Boehnke
    • , Panagiotis Deloukas
    • , Caroline S. Fox
    • , Joel N. Hirschhorn
    • , David J. Hunter
    • , Tim D. Spector
    • , David P. Strachan
    • , Cornelia M. van Duijn
    • , Iris M. Heid
    • , Karen L. Mohlke
    • , Jonathan Marchini
    • , Ruth J. F. Loos
    • , Tuomas O. Kilpeläinen
    • , Ching-Ti Liu
    • , Ingrid B. Borecki
    • , Kari E. North
    •  & L Adrienne Cupples
  • Article | | open

    Some argue that health-related behaviours, such as obesity, are contagious, but empirical evidence of health contagion remains inconclusive. Here, using a large scale quasi-experiment in a global network of runners, Aral and Nicolaides show that this type of contagion exists in fitness behaviours.

    • Sinan Aral
    •  & Christos Nicolaides
  • Article | | open

    DNA methylation is modulated by environmental factors and has a role in many complex diseases. Here, the authors find that methylation at specific DNA sites is associated with all-cause mortality, and a methylation-based risk score may be informative for risk assessment and stratification.

    • Yan Zhang
    • , Rory Wilson
    • , Jonathan Heiss
    • , Lutz P. Breitling
    • , Kai-Uwe Saum
    • , Ben Schöttker
    • , Bernd Holleczek
    • , Melanie Waldenberger
    • , Annette Peters
    •  & Hermann Brenner
  • Article | | open

    Typhoid fever is caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi). This study examines 2,000 clinical isolates of S. Typhi to show highly structured/geographically restricted genomes except rapidly disseminating H58 subclade, and design a genotyping framework for tracking the disease.

    • Vanessa K. Wong
    • , Stephen Baker
    • , Thomas R. Connor
    • , Derek Pickard
    • , Andrew J. Page
    • , Jayshree Dave
    • , Niamh Murphy
    • , Richard Holliman
    • , Armine Sefton
    • , Michael Millar
    • , Zoe A. Dyson
    • , Gordon Dougan
    • , Kathryn E. Holt
    • , International Typhoid Consortium
    • , Julian Parkhill
    • , Nicholas A. Feasey
    • , Robert A. Kingsley
    • , Nicholas R. Thomson
    • , Jacqueline A. Keane
    • , François- Xavier Weill
    • , Simon Le Hello
    • , Jane Hawkey
    • , David J. Edwards
    • , Simon R. Harris
    • , Amy K. Cain
    • , James Hadfield
    • , Peter J. Hart
    • , Nga Tran Vu Thieu
    • , Elizabeth J. Klemm
    • , Robert F. Breiman
    • , Conall H. Watson
    • , W. John Edmunds
    • , Samuel Kariuki
    • , Melita A. Gordon
    • , Robert S. Heyderman
    • , Chinyere Okoro
    • , Jan Jacobs
    • , Octavie Lunguya
    • , Chisomo Msefula
    • , Jose A. Chabalgoity
    • , Mike Kama
    • , Kylie Jenkins
    • , Shanta Dutta
    • , Florian Marks
    • , Josefina Campos
    • , Corinne Thompson
    • , Stephen Obaro
    • , Calman A. MacLennan
    • , Christiane Dolecek
    • , Karen H. Keddy
    • , Anthony M. Smith
    • , Christopher M. Parry
    • , Abhilasha Karkey
    • , Sabina Dongol
    • , Buddha Basnyat
    • , Amit Arjyal
    • , E. Kim Mulholland
    • , James I. Campbell
    • , Muriel Dufour
    • , Don Bandaranayake
    • , Take N. Toleafoa
    • , Shalini Pravin Singh
    • , Mochammad Hatta
    • , Paul N. Newton
    • , David Dance
    • , Viengmon Davong
    • , Robert S. Onsare
    • , Lupeoletalalelei Isaia
    • , Guy Thwaites
    • , Lalith Wijedoru
    • , John A. Crump
    • , Elizabeth De Pinna
    • , Satheesh Nair
    • , Eric J. Nilles
    • , Duy Pham Thanh
    • , Paul Turner
    • , Sona Soeng
    • , Mary Valcanis
    • , Joan Powling
    • , Karolina Dimovski
    • , Geoff Hogg
    • , Jeremy Farrar
    • , Alison E. Mather
    •  & Ben Amos
  • Article | | open

    The socioeconomic burden of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is high, but the projected number of cases in the upcoming years is unclear. Here, the authors estimate the number and distribution of ALS cases to 2040, and show that cases are projected to increase, particularly in developing nations.

    • Karissa C. Arthur
    • , Andrea Calvo
    • , T. Ryan Price
    • , Joshua T. Geiger
    • , Adriano Chiò
    •  & Bryan J. Traynor
  • Article | | open

    The impact of antibiotics on the microbiome and health of children is poorly understood. Here, Korpela et al. study the gut microbiome of 142 children and show that the use of macrolides, but not penicillins, is associated with long-lasting shifts in microbiota composition and increased risk of asthma and overweight.

    • Katri Korpela
    • , Anne Salonen
    • , Lauri J. Virta
    • , Riina A. Kekkonen
    • , Kristoffer Forslund
    • , Peer Bork
    •  & Willem M. de Vos
  • Article | | open

    An important risk factor for coronary artery disease is the level of blood lipids. Here the authors conduct an exome-wide association study in Chinese cohorts and identify three novel loci associated with lipid levels as well as three Asian-specific variants in known loci.

    • Clara S. Tang
    • , He Zhang
    • , Chloe Y. Y. Cheung
    • , Ming Xu
    • , Jenny C. Y. Ho
    • , Wei Zhou
    • , Stacey S. Cherny
    • , Yan Zhang
    • , Oddgeir Holmen
    • , Ka-Wing Au
    • , Haiyi Yu
    • , Lin Xu
    • , Jia Jia
    • , Robert M. Porsch
    • , Lijie Sun
    • , Weixian Xu
    • , Huiping Zheng
    • , Lai-Yung Wong
    • , Yiming Mu
    • , Jingtao Dou
    • , Carol H. Y. Fong
    • , Shuyu Wang
    • , Xueyu Hong
    • , Liguang Dong
    • , Yanhua Liao
    • , Jiansong Wang
    • , Levina S. M. Lam
    • , Xi Su
    • , Hua Yan
    • , Min-Lee Yang
    • , Jin Chen
    • , Chung-Wah Siu
    • , Gaoqiang Xie
    • , Yu-Cho Woo
    • , Yangfeng Wu
    • , Kathryn C. B. Tan
    • , Kristian Hveem
    • , Bernard M. Y. Cheung
    • , Sebastian Zöllner
    • , Aimin Xu
    • , Y Eugene Chen
    • , Chao Qiang Jiang
    • , Youyi Zhang
    • , Tai-Hing Lam
    • , Santhi K. Ganesh
    • , Yong Huo
    • , Pak C. Sham
    • , Karen S. L. Lam
    • , Cristen J. Willer
    • , Hung-Fat Tse
    •  & Wei Gao
  • Article | | open

    The authors perform a genome-wide association study of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients of Han Chinese descent, and identify 3 new loci for disease susceptibility.

    • Zezhang Zhu
    • , Nelson Leung-Sang Tang
    • , Leilei Xu
    • , Xiaodong Qin
    • , Saihu Mao
    • , Yueming Song
    • , Limin Liu
    • , Fangcai Li
    • , Peng Liu
    • , Long Yi
    • , Jiang Chang
    • , Long Jiang
    • , Bobby Kin-Wah Ng
    • , Benlong Shi
    • , Wen Zhang
    • , Jun Qiao
    • , Xu Sun
    • , Xusheng Qiu
    • , Zhou Wang
    • , Fei Wang
    • , Dingding Xie
    • , Ling Chen
    • , Zhonghui Chen
    • , Mengran Jin
    • , Xiao Han
    • , Zongshan Hu
    • , Zhen Zhang
    • , Zhen Liu
    • , Feng Zhu
    • , Bang-ping Qian
    • , Yang Yu
    • , Bing Wang
    • , K. M. Lee
    • , Wayne Y.W. Lee
    • , T. P. Lam
    • , Yong Qiu
    •  & Jack Chun-Yiu Cheng
  • Article | | open

    Mathematical models are used to predict malaria burden to inform disease control efforts. Here, Cameron et al. use Bayesian statistics to calibrate previous models against a data set of age-structured prevalence and incidence, generating stratified forecasts of the prevalence–incidence relationship.

    • Ewan Cameron
    • , Katherine E. Battle
    • , Samir Bhatt
    • , Daniel J. Weiss
    • , Donal Bisanzio
    • , Bonnie Mappin
    • , Ursula Dalrymple
    • , Simon I. Hay
    • , David L. Smith
    • , Jamie T. Griffin
    • , Edward A. Wenger
    • , Philip A. Eckhoff
    • , Thomas A. Smith
    • , Melissa A. Penny
    •  & Peter W. Gething
  • Article | | open

    Polycystic Ovary Sydrome is a highly heritable, complex reproductive disorder with unknown underlying genetic factors. Here Hayes and Urbanek et al. identify three loci in European women strongly associated with neuroendocrine changes and disease susceptibility.

    • M. Geoffrey Hayes
    • , Margrit Urbanek
    • , David A. Ehrmann
    • , Loren L. Armstrong
    • , Ji Young Lee
    • , Ryan Sisk
    • , Tugce Karaderi
    • , Thomas M. Barber
    • , Mark I. McCarthy
    • , Stephen Franks
    • , Cecilia M. Lindgren
    • , Corrine K. Welt
    • , Evanthia Diamanti-Kandarakis
    • , Dimitrios Panidis
    • , Mark O. Goodarzi
    • , Ricardo Azziz
    • , Yi Zhang
    • , Roland G. James
    • , Michael Olivier
    • , Ahmed H. Kissebah
    • , Reproductive Medicine Network
    • , Ruben Alvero
    • , Huiman X. Barnhart
    • , Valerie Baker
    • , Kurt T. Barnhart
    • , G. Wright Bates
    • , Robert G. Brzyski
    • , Bruce R. Carr
    • , Sandra A. Carson
    • , Peter Casson
    • , Nicholas A. Cataldo
    • , Gregory Christman
    • , Christos Coutifaris
    • , Michael P. Diamond
    • , Esther Eisenberg
    • , Gabriella G. Gosman
    • , Linda C. Giudice
    • , Daniel J. Haisenleder
    • , Hao Huang
    • , Stephen A. Krawetz
    • , Scott Lucidi
    • , Peter G. McGovern
    • , Evan R. Myers
    • , John E. Nestler
    • , Dana Ohl
    • , Nanette Santoro
    • , William D. Schlaff
    • , Peter Snyder
    • , Michael P. Steinkampf
    • , J. C. Trussell
    • , Rebecca Usadi
    • , Qingshang Yan
    • , Heping Zhang
    • , Elisabet Stener-Victorin
    • , Richard S. Legro
    •  & Andrea Dunaif
  • Article |

    African Americans have much higher colon cancer rates than rural South Africans, which is associated with dietary and metabolic differences. Here, O’Keefe et al. show that switching quantities of fat and fibre leads to reciprocal changes in gut microbiota, metabolites and cancer biomarkers.

    • Stephen J. D. O’Keefe
    • , Jia V. Li
    • , Leo Lahti
    • , Junhai Ou
    • , Franck Carbonero
    • , Khaled Mohammed
    • , Joram M. Posma
    • , James Kinross
    • , Elaine Wahl
    • , Elizabeth Ruder
    • , Kishore Vipperla
    • , Vasudevan Naidoo
    • , Lungile Mtshali
    • , Sebastian Tims
    • , Philippe G. B. Puylaert
    • , James DeLany
    • , Alyssa Krasinskas
    • , Ann C. Benefiel
    • , Hatem O. Kaseb
    • , Keith Newton
    • , Jeremy K. Nicholson
    • , Willem M. de Vos
    • , H. Rex Gaskins
    •  & Erwin G. Zoetendal