Enzyme mechanisms

Definition

Enzyme mechanisms are the chemical transformations, and the steps within them, generated by enzymatic action on substrates. The mechanism of enzyme catalysis is similar in principle to other types of chemical catalysis, for instance by involving a combination of several different types of catalysis. Determining enzyme mechanisms includes determining their kinetic and thermodynamic properties.

Latest Research and Reviews

  • Research | | open

    Using photosensitive caged-compound for femtosecond crystallography at X-ray free electron lasers would allow the structure determination of reaction intermediates. Here the authors demonstrate the feasibility of this approach with a caged NO-compound and present the initial NO-bound intermediate structure of cytochrome P450 nitric oxide reductase.

    • Takehiko Tosha
    • , Takashi Nomura
    • , Takuma Nishida
    • , Naoya Saeki
    • , Kouta Okubayashi
    • , Raika Yamagiwa
    • , Michihiro Sugahara
    • , Takanori Nakane
    • , Keitaro Yamashita
    • , Kunio Hirata
    • , Go Ueno
    • , Tetsunari Kimura
    • , Tamao Hisano
    • , Kazumasa Muramoto
    • , Hitomi Sawai
    • , Hanae Takeda
    • , Eiichi Mizohata
    • , Ayumi Yamashita
    • , Yusuke Kanematsu
    • , Yu Takano
    • , Eriko Nango
    • , Rie Tanaka
    • , Osamu Nureki
    • , Osami Shoji
    • , Yuka Ikemoto
    • , Hironori Murakami
    • , Shigeki Owada
    • , Kensuke Tono
    • , Makina Yabashi
    • , Masaki Yamamoto
    • , Hideo Ago
    • , So Iwata
    • , Hiroshi Sugimoto
    • , Yoshitsugu Shiro
    •  & Minoru Kubo
  • Research | | open

    The electron-transferring flavoprotein / butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase (EtfAB/Bcd) complex catalyzes the reduction of crotonyl-CoA and ferredoxins by NADH in anaerobic microbes. Here, the authors present the crystal structure of Clostridium difficile EtfAB/Bcd and discuss the bifurcation mechanism for electron flow.

    • Julius K. Demmer
    • , Nilanjan Pal Chowdhury
    • , Thorsten Selmer
    • , Ulrich Ermler
    •  & Wolfgang Buckel
  • Research | | open

    The catalytic subunit E9 of the vaccinia virus DNA polymerase forms a functional polymerase holoenzyme by interacting with the heterodimeric processivity factor A20/D4. Here the authors present the structure of full-length E9 and show that an insertion within its palm domain binds A20, in a mode different from other family B polymerases.

    • Nicolas Tarbouriech
    • , Corinne Ducournau
    • , Stephanie Hutin
    • , Philippe J. Mas
    • , Petr Man
    • , Eric Forest
    • , Darren J. Hart
    • , Christophe N. Peyrefitte
    • , Wim P. Burmeister
    •  & Frédéric Iseni
  • Research |

    Single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer is used to identify the rate-limiting step and new intermediates in the conformational cycle of the Listeria monocytogenes calcium transporter LMCA1.

    • Mateusz Dyla
    • , Daniel S. Terry
    • , Magnus Kjaergaard
    • , Thomas L.-M. Sørensen
    • , Jacob Lauwring Andersen
    • , Jens Peter Andersen
    • , Charlotte Rohde Knudsen
    • , Roger B. Altman
    • , Poul Nissen
    •  & Scott C. Blanchard
    Nature 551, 346–351
  • Research | | open

    CRISPR RNA-guided endonuclease Cas9 recognizes and cleaves the double-stranded DNA complementary to the RNA guide. Here the authors use high-speed atomic force micropcopy (HS-AFM) to visualize the conformational dynamics of Cas9 during its DNA targeting and cleavage processes.

    • Mikihiro Shibata
    • , Hiroshi Nishimasu
    • , Noriyuki Kodera
    • , Seiichi Hirano
    • , Toshio Ando
    • , Takayuki Uchihashi
    •  & Osamu Nureki
  • Research | | open

    CRISPR-Cas9 is widely used for genome engineering but structural data for the DNA cleavage step are still incomplete. Here, the authors present the cryo-EM structure of a ternary Cas9-sgRNA-target DNA complex, perform MD simulations and discuss implications for the Cas9 DNA cleavage mechanism.

    • Cong Huai
    • , Gan Li
    • , Ruijie Yao
    • , Yingyi Zhang
    • , Mi Cao
    • , Liangliang Kong
    • , Chenqiang Jia
    • , Hui Yuan
    • , Hongyan Chen
    • , Daru Lu
    •  & Qiang Huang

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