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Ecological networks are representations of the interactions that occur between species within a community. The interactions include competition, mutualism and predation, and network properties of particular interest include stability and structure.
The pollination service provided by nocturnal flower visitors is disrupted near streetlamps, which leads to a reduced reproductive output of the plant that cannot be compensated for by day-time pollinators; in addition, the structure of combined nocturnal and diurnal pollination networks facilitates the spread of the consequences of disrupted night-time pollination to daytime pollinators.
A steep decline in archiving could make large tree-ring datasets irrelevant. But increased spatiotemporal coverage, the addition of novel parameters at sub-annual resolution, and integration with other in situ and remote Earth observations will elevate tree-ring data as an essential component of global-change research.
The use of catch data to determine indicators of biodiversity such as 'mean trophic level' does not adequately measure ecosystem changes induced by fishing. Improved ways to assess those changes are required. See Letter p.431