Biological sciences

  • Article
    | Open Access

    Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 3 is a disease caused by mutations in the gene encoding the multidrug resistance protein 3, and has limited treatment options. Here they show that adeno-associated virus mediated gene therapy prevents disease progression in a mouse disease model.

    • Nicholas D. Weber
    • , Leticia Odriozola
    • , Javier Martínez-García
    • , Veronica Ferrer
    • , Anne Douar
    • , Bernard Bénichou
    • , Gloria González-Aseguinolaza
    •  & Cristian Smerdou
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The Lys48-linked polyubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation in yeast depends on Cdc48 and its cofactors Ufd1 and Npl4. Here, the authors present crystal structures of Npl4 bound to Lys48-linked diubiquitin and the Npl4-binding motif of Ufd1, providing insights into the reaction mechanism of the Cdc48- Ufd1/Npl4 complex.

    • Yusuke Sato
    • , Hikaru Tsuchiya
    • , Atsushi Yamagata
    • , Kei Okatsu
    • , Keiji Tanaka
    • , Yasushi Saeki
    •  & Shuya Fukai
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The BEN-solo proteins—including Insensitive (Insv), Elba1 and Elba2—function in both transcriptional repression and chromatin insulation. Here, the authors investigate the role of these proteins in Drosophila embryos, finding that ELBA and Insv function as general insulators and partition active chromatin to ensure proper gene activation in Drosophila.

    • Malin Ueberschär
    • , Huazhen Wang
    • , Chun Zhang
    • , Shu Kondo
    • , Tsutomu Aoki
    • , Paul Schedl
    • , Eric C. Lai
    • , Jiayu Wen
    •  & Qi Dai
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Here, the authors characterize immunological and microbiome alterations in a cohort of obese asthmatics, finding that disease severity negatively correlates with fecal abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila, and show in a mouse model that administration of A. muciniphila reduces airway hyper-reactivity and airway inflammation.

    • David Michalovich
    • , Noelia Rodriguez-Perez
    • , Sylwia Smolinska
    • , Michal Pirozynski
    • , David Mayhew
    • , Sorif Uddin
    • , Stephanie Van Horn
    • , Milena Sokolowska
    • , Can Altunbulakli
    • , Andrzej Eljaszewicz
    • , Benoit Pugin
    • , Weronika Barcik
    • , Magdalena Kurnik-Lucka
    • , Ken A. Saunders
    • , Karen D. Simpson
    • , Peter Schmid-Grendelmeier
    • , Ruth Ferstl
    • , Remo Frei
    • , Noriane Sievi
    • , Malcolm Kohler
    • , Pawel Gajdanowicz
    • , Katrine B. Graversen
    • , Katrine Lindholm Bøgh
    • , Marek Jutel
    • , James R. Brown
    • , Cezmi A. Akdis
    • , Edith M. Hessel
    •  & Liam O’Mahony
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Rap1 is a telomeric protein that is highly expressed in cancers. Here, the authors show that Rap1 interacts with several DNA repair proteins independent of its telomere function to enhance DNA repair and that its deficiency leads to accelerated tumorigenesis, but enhanced sensitivity to genotoxic stress.

    • Ekta Khattar
    • , Kyaw Ze Ya Maung
    • , Chen Li Chew
    • , Arkasubhra Ghosh
    • , Michelle Meng Huang Mok
    • , Pei Lee
    • , Jun Zhang
    • , Wei Hong Jeff Chor
    • , Gökhan Cildir
    • , Chelsia Qiuxia Wang
    • , Nur Khairiah Mohd-Ismail
    • , Desmond Wai Loon Chin
    • , Soo Chin Lee
    • , Henry Yang
    • , Yong-Jae Shin
    • , Do-Hyun Nam
    • , Liming Chen
    • , Alan Prem Kumar
    • , Lih Wen Deng
    • , Masahito Ikawa
    • , Jayantha Gunaratne
    • , Motomi Osato
    •  & Vinay Tergaonkar
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The design of protein assemblies is a major thrust for biomolecular engineering and nanobiotechnology. Here the authors demonstrate a general mechanism for designing allosteric macromolecular assemblies and showcase a proof of concept for engineered allosteric protein assembly.

    • Luis A. Campos
    • , Rajendra Sharma
    • , Sara Alvira
    • , Federico M. Ruiz
    • , Beatriz Ibarra-Molero
    • , Mourad Sadqi
    • , Carlos Alfonso
    • , Germán Rivas
    • , Jose M. Sanchez-Ruiz
    • , Antonio Romero Garrido
    • , José M. Valpuesta
    •  & Victor Muñoz
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The kidney is vascularized with highly specialized and zonated endothelial cells that are essential for its filtration function. Here, Barry et al. provide a single-cell RNA sequencing analysis of the kidney vasculature that highlights its transcriptional heterogeneity and uncovers pathways important for its development and function.

    • David M. Barry
    • , Elizabeth A. McMillan
    • , Balvir Kunar
    • , Raphael Lis
    • , Tuo Zhang
    • , Tyler Lu
    • , Edward Daniel
    • , Masataka Yokoyama
    • , Jesus M. Gomez-Salinero
    • , Angara Sureshbabu
    • , Ondine Cleaver
    • , Annarita Di Lorenzo
    • , Mary E. Choi
    • , Jenny Xiang
    • , David Redmond
    • , Sina Y. Rabbany
    • , Thangamani Muthukumar
    •  & Shahin Rafii
  • Article
    | Open Access

    miRNA142-3p and Tet2 are separately known to regulate Treg. Here the authors show that miRNA142-3p targets Tet2 and by this opposes Treg differentiation in autoimmune diabetes.

    • Martin G. Scherm
    • , Isabelle Serr
    • , Adam M. Zahm
    • , Jonathan Schug
    • , Saverio Bellusci
    • , Rossella Manfredini
    • , Victoria K. Salb
    • , Katharina Gerlach
    • , Benno Weigmann
    • , Anette-Gabriele Ziegler
    • , Klaus H. Kaestner
    •  & Carolin Daniel
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Common Fragile Sites (CFSs) are chromosome regions prone to breakage upon replication stress known to drive chromosome rearrangements during oncogenesis. Here the authors use genome-wide and single cell techniques to assess how replication timing and transcriptional activity correlate with genome stability.

    • Olivier Brison
    • , Sami El-Hilali
    • , Dana Azar
    • , Stéphane Koundrioukoff
    • , Mélanie Schmidt
    • , Viola Nähse
    • , Yan Jaszczyszyn
    • , Anne-Marie Lachages
    • , Bernard Dutrillaux
    • , Claude Thermes
    • , Michelle Debatisse
    •  & Chun-Long Chen
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely used to study the rat brain. Here, the authors provide standardized MRI brain templates and descriptive atlases for the rat, incorporating both structural and functional MRI data, along with associated resources.

    • D. A. Barrière
    • , R. Magalhães
    • , A. Novais
    • , P. Marques
    • , E. Selingue
    • , F. Geffroy
    • , F. Marques
    • , J. Cerqueira
    • , J. C. Sousa
    • , F. Boumezbeur
    • , M. Bottlaender
    • , T. M. Jay
    • , A. Cachia
    • , N. Sousa
    •  & S. Mériaux
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Glioblastoma cells are known to be able to adapt easily to different environments. The authors study the dynamic adaptation of glioblastoma cells to the heterogenous brain tumor microenvironment, showing that tumor cells demonstrate varying plasticity of their transcriptomic profiles and an ability to survive new stimuli, in part, by propagating stochastic perturbations over their gene-regulatory network.

    • Orieta Celiku
    • , Mark R. Gilbert
    •  & Orit Lavi
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Graft versus host disease (GvHD) still hinders allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Here, the authors use metabolomics to analyze two cohorts of paired transplant recipients and donors, identifying significant differences in both host- and microbiota-derived metabolites.

    • David Michonneau
    • , Eleonora Latis
    • , Emmanuel Curis
    • , Laetitia Dubouchet
    • , Sivapriya Ramamoorthy
    • , Brian Ingram
    • , Régis Peffault de Latour
    • , Marie Robin
    • , Flore Sicre de Fontbrune
    • , Sylvie Chevret
    • , Lars Rogge
    •  & Gérard Socié
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Multiplexed detection of luciferase-based sensors in the same sample is challenging and limited by the substrates’ emission spectra. Here the authors establish a system based on three different luciferases and sequential detection to achieve measurements of up to six parameters within the same experiment.

    • Alejandro Sarrion-Perdigones
    • , Lyra Chang
    • , Yezabel Gonzalez
    • , Tatiana Gallego-Flores
    • , Damian W. Young
    •  & Koen J. T. Venken
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The authors report a co-occurrence of the U2AF1 S34F splicing factor mutation and ROS1 translocations in lung adenocarcinomas and profile effects of S34F on transcriptome-wide RNA binding. They further show that U2AF1 S34F enhances invasive potential and alters splicing of ROS1 fusion transcripts

    • Mohammad S. Esfahani
    • , Luke J. Lee
    • , Young-Jun Jeon
    • , Ryan A. Flynn
    • , Henning Stehr
    • , Angela B. Hui
    • , Noriko Ishisoko
    • , Eric Kildebeck
    • , Aaron M. Newman
    • , Scott V. Bratman
    • , Matthew H. Porteus
    • , Howard Y. Chang
    • , Ash A. Alizadeh
    •  & Maximilian Diehn
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Spatial maps in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) have been proposed to map abstract conceptual knowledge. Rather than grounding abstract knowledge in a spatial map, the authors propose a general-purpose clustering algorithm that explains how both spatial (including place and grid cells) and higher-dimensional conceptual representations arise during learning.

    • Robert M. Mok
    •  & Bradley C. Love
  • Article
    | Open Access

    A Zika virus vaccine should protect the fetus during pregnancy. Here, using a live-attenuated Zika vaccine, the authors show that a higher neutralizing antibody titer is required to protect from in utero transmission than to protect non-pregnant mice and that a single maternal immunization protects the fetus from infection and disease.

    • Chao Shan
    • , Xuping Xie
    • , Huanle Luo
    • , Antonio E. Muruato
    • , Yang Liu
    • , Maki Wakamiya
    • , Jun-Ho La
    • , Jin Mo Chung
    • , Scott C. Weaver
    • , Tian Wang
    •  & Pei-Yong Shi
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Particle manipulation is still challenging even with the many tools available, especially manipulating particles on a surface. Here, the authors report a technique for nanomanipulation of various objects on solid substrates by modulating particle-substrate interactions through laser-induced opto-thermal dynamics.

    • Jingang Li
    • , Yaoran Liu
    • , Linhan Lin
    • , Mingsong Wang
    • , Taizhi Jiang
    • , Jianhe Guo
    • , Hongru Ding
    • , Pavana Siddhartha Kollipara
    • , Yuji Inoue
    • , Donglei Fan
    • , Brian A. Korgel
    •  & Yuebing Zheng
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Here, the authors report parametric down-conversion of X-rays into long wavelength radiation in gallium arsenide and lithium niobate crystals, with efficiencies about 4 orders of magnitude stronger than the efficiencies measured in any material studied previously. They explore the lack of inversion symmetry as a possible physical mechanism.

    • S. Sofer
    • , O. Sefi
    • , E. Strizhevsky
    • , H. Aknin
    • , S. P. Collins
    • , G. Nisbet
    • , B. Detlefs
    • , Ch. J. Sahle
    •  & S. Shwartz
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Elctrochemical water splitting is of vital significance for energy conversion and storage. Here the authors show an electrocatalyst based on amorphous ruthenium-tellurium porous nanorods which exhibit significantly improved OER performance than its crystalline counterparts

    • Juan Wang
    • , Lili Han
    • , Bolong Huang
    • , Qi Shao
    • , Huolin L. Xin
    •  & Xiaoqing Huang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Although many species-specific imprinted genes have been identified, how the evolutionary switch from biallelic to imprinted expression occurs is still unknown. Here authors find that lineage-specific ERVs active as oocyte promoters can induce de novo DNA methylation at gDMRs and imprinting.

    • Aaron B. Bogutz
    • , Julie Brind’Amour
    • , Hisato Kobayashi
    • , Kristoffer N. Jensen
    • , Kazuhiko Nakabayashi
    • , Hiroo Imai
    • , Matthew C. Lorincz
    •  & Louis Lefebvre
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Calcium carbonate biomineralisation has long been linked to acidic macromolecules. Here, the authors challenge this view and show that a huge number of gold nanoparticles coated with hydroxyl-rich proteins can be incorporated into a calcium carbonate crystal while maintaining single crystal character.

    • Yi-Yeoun Kim
    • , Robert Darkins
    • , Alexander Broad
    • , Alexander N. Kulak
    • , Mark A. Holden
    • , Ouassef Nahi
    • , Steven P. Armes
    • , Chiu C. Tang
    • , Rebecca F. Thompson
    • , Frederic Marin
    • , Dorothy M. Duffy
    •  & Fiona C. Meldrum
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The eye shows protective responses to noxious stimuli including cold. Here, the authors show that TRPV1, found co-expressed on TRPM8 + fibres in the cornea, is necessary for cold nociception in the eye.

    • Fengxian Li
    • , Weishan Yang
    • , Haowu Jiang
    • , Changxiong Guo
    • , Andrew J. W. Huang
    • , Hongzhen Hu
    •  & Qin Liu
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Primary cilia have been proposed to regulate glucose metabolism and insulin secretion in beta cells, but it is not known how. Here the authors show that primary cilia play a role in adult β-cell function via a mechanism involving endosomal EphA-processing.

    • Francesco Volta
    • , M. Julia Scerbo
    • , Anett Seelig
    • , Robert Wagner
    • , Nils O’Brien
    • , Felicia Gerst
    • , Andreas Fritsche
    • , Hans-Ulrich Häring
    • , Anja Zeigerer
    • , Susanne Ullrich
    •  & Jantje M. Gerdes
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Understanding the genomic features of dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLPS) is likely to uncover new options for management. Here, the authors reveal three prognostic groups, and highlight molecular markers associated with malignant transformation.

    • Makoto Hirata
    • , Naofumi Asano
    • , Kotoe Katayama
    • , Akihiko Yoshida
    • , Yusuke Tsuda
    • , Masaya Sekimizu
    • , Sachiyo Mitani
    • , Eisuke Kobayashi
    • , Motokiyo Komiyama
    • , Hiroyuki Fujimoto
    • , Takahiro Goto
    • , Yukihide Iwamoto
    • , Norifumi Naka
    • , Shintaro Iwata
    • , Yoshihiro Nishida
    • , Toru Hiruma
    • , Hiroaki Hiraga
    • , Hirotaka Kawano
    • , Toru Motoi
    • , Yoshinao Oda
    • , Daisuke Matsubara
    • , Masashi Fujita
    • , Tatsuhiro Shibata
    • , Hidewaki Nakagawa
    • , Robert Nakayama
    • , Tadashi Kondo
    • , Seiya Imoto
    • , Satoru Miyano
    • , Akira Kawai
    • , Rui Yamaguchi
    • , Hitoshi Ichikawa
    •  & Koichi Matsuda
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Cell senescence involves stable arrest of cell proliferation and changes in gene expression and 3D genome reorganization. Here, the authors show that human condensin II complex participates in reorganization of the chromatin compartments, primarily through switching from heterochromatic B to euchromatic A compartments.

    • Osamu Iwasaki
    • , Hideki Tanizawa
    • , Kyoung-Dong Kim
    • , Andrew Kossenkov
    • , Timothy Nacarelli
    • , Sanki Tashiro
    • , Sonali Majumdar
    • , Louise C. Showe
    • , Rugang Zhang
    •  & Ken-ichi Noma
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Sensory stimuli usually arrive simultaneously but the neural-circuit mechanisms that combine multiple streams of sensory information are incompletely understood. The authors here show that visual-auditory pairing drives plasticity in multi-modal neuron networks within the mouse visual cortex.

    • Thomas Knöpfel
    • , Yann Sweeney
    • , Carola I. Radulescu
    • , Nawal Zabouri
    • , Nazanin Doostdar
    • , Claudia Clopath
    •  & Samuel J. Barnes
  • Article
    | Open Access

    UVRAG is involved in autophagy, which loses its tumour suppressor functions when in its truncated form in cancers. Here, the authors use a mouse model that inducibly express this truncated protein and show impaired autophagy, enhanced inflammation and β-catenin stabilisation, which promotes spontaneous tumorigenesis.

    • Christine Quach
    • , Ying Song
    • , Hongrui Guo
    • , Shun Li
    • , Hadi Maazi
    • , Marshall Fung
    • , Nathaniel Sands
    • , Douglas O’Connell
    • , Sara Restrepo-Vassalli
    • , Billy Chai
    • , Dali Nemecio
    • , Vasu Punj
    • , Omid Akbari
    • , Gregory E. Idos
    • , Shannon M. Mumenthaler
    • , Nancy Wu
    • , Sue Ellen Martin
    • , Ashley Hagiya
    • , James Hicks
    • , Hengmin Cui
    •  & Chengyu Liang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The relationships between ecosystem productivity and plant diversity are complex. Here, the authors show that sites with high productivity typically have reduced species diversity but high functional and phylogenetic diversity, potentially owing to the creation of additional niche space.

    • Philipp Brun
    • , Niklaus E. Zimmermann
    • , Catherine H. Graham
    • , Sébastien Lavergne
    • , Loïc Pellissier
    • , Tamara Münkemüller
    •  & Wilfried Thuiller
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Phagocytosis is a typically eukaryotic feature that could be behind the origin of eukaryotic cells. Here, the authors describe a bacterium that can engulf other bacteria and small eukaryotic cells through a phagocytosis-like mechanism.

    • Takashi Shiratori
    • , Shigekatsu Suzuki
    • , Yukako Kakizawa
    •  & Ken-ichiro Ishida
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Lactobacillus associates with vaginal protection from HIV-1 infection. Here, the authors show that lactobacilli extracellular vesicles contain bacterial proteins and metabolites that inhibit HIV-1 infection in T cells and in human cervico-vaginal and tonsillar tissues ex vivo via altering viral Env proteins.

    • Rogers A. Ñahui Palomino
    • , Christophe Vanpouille
    • , Luca Laghi
    • , Carola Parolin
    • , Kamran Melikov
    • , Peter Backlund
    • , Beatrice Vitali
    •  & Leonid Margolis
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Single-molecule in vitro assays require dedicated confocal microscopes equipped with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) modules. Here the authors present a compact, cheap and open-source 3D-printed confocal microscope for single photon counting and FCS measurements, and use it to detect α-synuclein aggregation.

    • James W. P. Brown
    • , Arnaud Bauer
    • , Mark E Polinkovsky
    • , Akshay Bhumkar
    • , Dominic J. B. Hunter
    • , Katharina Gaus
    • , Emma Sierecki
    •  & Yann Gambin
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Organoid cultures have been developed from multiple tissues, opening new possibilities for regenerative medicine. Here the authors demonstrate the derivation of GMP-compliant hydrogels from decellularized porcine small intestine which support formation and growth of human gastric, liver, pancreatic and small intestinal organoids.

    • Giovanni Giuseppe Giobbe
    • , Claire Crowley
    • , Camilla Luni
    • , Sara Campinoti
    • , Moustafa Khedr
    • , Kai Kretzschmar
    • , Martina Maria De Santis
    • , Elisa Zambaiti
    • , Federica Michielin
    • , Laween Meran
    • , Qianjiang Hu
    • , Gijs van Son
    • , Luca Urbani
    • , Anna Manfredi
    • , Monica Giomo
    • , Simon Eaton
    • , Davide Cacchiarelli
    • , Vivian S. W. Li
    • , Hans Clevers
    • , Paola Bonfanti
    • , Nicola Elvassore
    •  & Paolo De Coppi
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Most cases of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) are due to mutations in PKD1. Here, Tsukiyama et al. generate monkeys with mutations in PKD1 and show that animals recapitulate key pathological features of the human disease, suggesting these may provide insights into ADPKD pathogenesis and contribute to the development of future therapeutic strategies.

    • Tomoyuki Tsukiyama
    • , Kenichi Kobayashi
    • , Masataka Nakaya
    • , Chizuru Iwatani
    • , Yasunari Seita
    • , Hideaki Tsuchiya
    • , Jun Matsushita
    • , Kahoru Kitajima
    • , Ikuo Kawamoto
    • , Takahiro Nakagawa
    • , Koji Fukuda
    • , Teppei Iwakiri
    • , Hiroyuki Izumi
    • , Iori Itagaki
    • , Shinji Kume
    • , Hiroshi Maegawa
    • , Ryuichi Nishinakamura
    • , Saori Nishio
    • , Shinichiro Nakamura
    • , Akihiro Kawauchi
    •  & Masatsugu Ema
  • Article
    | Open Access

    XACT is a primate-specific TE-derived lncRNA that coats active X chromosomes in pluripotent cells and may contribute to species-specific regulation of X chromosome inactivation. Here, the authors investigate TEs associated with the XACT locus and identify a critical enhancer for its regulation, which evolved from an ancestral group of mammalian endogenous retroviruses, prior to the emergence of XACT.

    • Miguel Casanova
    • , Madeleine Moscatelli
    • , Louis Édouard Chauvière
    • , Christophe Huret
    • , Julia Samson
    • , Tharvesh Moideen Liyakat Ali
    • , Olga Rosspopoff
    •  & Claire Rougeulle
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Innate immune cells can be trained by some stimuli or pathogen exposures to be metabolically and epigenetically altered such that they have different responses to subsequent exposures. Here the authors show that low-dose LPS trained macrophages and BCG-trained macrophages have opposing effects on fibrosis and inflammation in the context of systemic sclerosis.

    • Mohamed Jeljeli
    • , Luiza Gama Coelho Riccio
    • , Ludivine Doridot
    • , Charlotte Chêne
    • , Carole Nicco
    • , Sandrine Chouzenoux
    • , Quentin Deletang
    • , Yannick Allanore
    • , Niloufar Kavian
    •  & Frédéric Batteux
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Ageing is associated with clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP), which is linked to increased risks of hematological malignancies. Here the authors uncover an epigenetic mechanism through which mutant p53 drives clonal hematopoiesis through interaction with EZH2.

    • Sisi Chen
    • , Qiang Wang
    • , Hao Yu
    • , Maegan L. Capitano
    • , Sasidhar Vemula
    • , Sarah C. Nabinger
    • , Rui Gao
    • , Chonghua Yao
    • , Michihiro Kobayashi
    • , Zhuangzhuang Geng
    • , Aidan Fahey
    • , Danielle Henley
    • , Stephen Z. Liu
    • , Sergio Barajas
    • , Wenjie Cai
    • , Eric R. Wolf
    • , Baskar Ramdas
    • , Zhigang Cai
    • , Hongyu Gao
    • , Na Luo
    • , Yang Sun
    • , Terrence N. Wong
    • , Daniel C. Link
    • , Yunlong Liu
    • , H. Scott Boswell
    • , Lindsey D. Mayo
    • , Gang Huang
    • , Reuben Kapur
    • , Mervin C. Yoder
    • , Hal E. Broxmeyer
    • , Zhonghua Gao
    •  & Yan Liu
  • Article
    | Open Access

    BRCA1 mutations located within the BRCT domain result in proteasomal degradation and sensitivity to PARP inhibitors (PARPi). Here, the authors report genetic rearrangements in the BRCA1 gene that generate a BRCT-less BRCA1 protein isoform, which avoids degradation and leads to PARPi resistance.

    • Yifan Wang
    • , Andrea J. Bernhardy
    • , Joseph Nacson
    • , John J. Krais
    • , Yin-Fei Tan
    • , Emmanuelle Nicolas
    • , Marc R. Radke
    • , Elizabeth Handorf
    • , Alba Llop-Guevara
    • , Judith Balmaña
    • , Elizabeth M. Swisher
    • , Violeta Serra
    • , Suraj Peri
    •  & Neil Johnson
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Engineered biological nanopores enable observation of single molecule chemistry events; however a cylindrical pore geometry can have undesired effects. The authors report a conical biological pore which was embedded with tetrachloroaurate(III) to allow for discrimination between different biothiols.

    • Jiao Cao
    • , Wendong Jia
    • , Jinyue Zhang
    • , Xiumei Xu
    • , Shuanghong Yan
    • , Yuqin Wang
    • , Panke Zhang
    • , Hong-Yuan Chen
    •  & Shuo Huang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Attention is known to enhance relevant information in our environment, yet its underlying neural computations remain unclear. Here, the authors provide evidence that the degree to which a neural population can normalize itself results in greater potential for attentional benefits.

    • Ilona M. Bloem
    •  & Sam Ling
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Earth’s carbon cycle and oceanic magnesium cycle are controlled by processes such as weathering, volcanism and precipitation of carbonates, such as dolomite. Here, the authors contradict the view that modern dolomite formation is rare and suggest instead that dolomite accounts for ~40–60% of the global oceanic Mg output in the last 20 Ma.

    • Netta Shalev
    • , Tomaso R. R. Bontognali
    • , C. Geoffrey Wheat
    •  & Derek Vance
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Gut microbiota alterations, including enrichment of flagellated bacteria, are associated with metabolic syndrome and chronic inflammatory diseases. Here, Tran et al. show, in mice, that elicitation of mucosal anti-flagellin antibodies protects against experimental colitis and ameliorates diet-induced obesity.

    • Hao Q. Tran
    • , Ruth E. Ley
    • , Andrew T. Gewirtz
    •  & Benoit Chassaing
  • Article
    | Open Access

    While the cellular recycling process autophagy has been linked to aging, the impact of selective autophagy on lifespan remains unclear. Here Kumsta et al. show that the autophagy receptor p62/SQSTM1 is required for hormetic benefits and p62/SQSTM1 overexpression is sufficient to extend C. elegans lifespan and improve proteostasis.

    • Caroline Kumsta
    • , Jessica T. Chang
    • , Reina Lee
    • , Ee Phie Tan
    • , Yongzhi Yang
    • , Rute Loureiro
    • , Elizabeth H. Choy
    • , Shaun H. Y. Lim
    • , Isabel Saez
    • , Alexander Springhorn
    • , Thorsten Hoppe
    • , David Vilchez
    •  & Malene Hansen
  • Article
    | Open Access

    People can easily extract task-relevant gist features from visual scenes and hold those features in working memory. Here, the authors show that this gist information is gradually abstracted from posterior to anterior regions of the brain and stably represented at the anterior region.

    • Byung-Il Oh
    • , Yee-Joon Kim
    •  & Min-Suk Kang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Effective precision medicine strategies rely on the ability to predict tumour behaviour based on molecular characteristics. Here, the authors build models to predict multiple distinct gene expression patterns using DNA copy number alterations

    • Youli Xia
    • , Cheng Fan
    • , Katherine A. Hoadley
    • , Joel S. Parker
    •  & Charles M. Perou
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Artificial nanopores can perform selective gating of molecules analogous to transmembrane proteins. Here, the authors design a DNA origami pore with a controllable lid for size-selective gating and translocation of macromolecules and evaluate its biosensing properties by single particle assay.

    • Rasmus P. Thomsen
    • , Mette Galsgaard Malle
    • , Anders Hauge Okholm
    • , Swati Krishnan
    • , Søren S.-R. Bohr
    • , Rasmus Schøler Sørensen
    • , Oliver Ries
    • , Stefan Vogel
    • , Friedrich C. Simmel
    • , Nikos S. Hatzakis
    •  & Jørgen Kjems
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Performing intravital imaging of the colon in mouse models is challenging due to the colon’s anatomic location and motility. Here, the authors develop a murine colonic window for intravital chronic imaging that maximises long-term animal survival and minimises motion artefacts.

    • Nikolai Rakhilin
    • , Aliesha Garrett
    • , Chi-Yong Eom
    • , Katherine Ramos Chavez
    • , David M. Small
    • , Andrea R. Daniel
    • , Melanie M. Kaelberer
    • , Menansili A. Mejooli
    • , Qiang Huang
    • , Shengli Ding
    • , David G. Kirsch
    • , Diego V. Bohórquez
    • , Nozomi Nishimura
    • , Bradley B. Barth
    •  & Xiling Shen
  • Article
    | Open Access

    PARG catalyzes the removal of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) from target proteins and executes critical functions in the DNA damage response. Here the authors provide structural and biological insight with small molecule PARG inhibitors and show that PARG inhibition sensitizes cells to ionizing radiation and kills cancer cells through replication fork defects.

    • Jerry H. Houl
    • , Zu Ye
    • , Chris A. Brosey
    • , Lakshitha P. F. Balapiti-Modarage
    • , Sarita Namjoshi
    • , Albino Bacolla
    • , Daniel Laverty
    • , Brian L. Walker
    • , Yasin Pourfarjam
    • , Leslie S. Warden
    • , Naga Babu Chinnam
    • , Davide Moiani
    • , Roderick A. Stegeman
    • , Mei-Kuang Chen
    • , Mien-Chie Hung
    • , Zachary D. Nagel
    • , Tom Ellenberger
    • , In-Kwon Kim
    • , Darin E. Jones
    • , Zamal Ahmed
    •  & John A. Tainer
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Long primary transcripts of microRNAs are co-transcriptionally cleaved by the enzyme Drosha. Here the authors suggest that DNA methylation in miRNA loci in mammalian cells increases Drosha binding, slowing RNA polymerase II elongation to enhance miRNA biogenesis.

    • Ohad Glaich
    • , Shivang Parikh
    • , Rachel E. Bell
    • , Keren Mekahel
    • , Maya Donyo
    • , Yodfat Leader
    • , Ronna Shayevitch
    • , Danna Sheinboim
    • , Sivan Yannai
    • , Dror Hollander
    • , Ze’ev Melamed
    • , Galit Lev-Maor
    • , Gil Ast
    •  & Carmit Levy