Protocol abstract

Nature Protocols 3, 1925 - 1931 (2008)
Published online: 20 November 2008 | doi:10.1038/nprot.2008.193

Subject Categories: Microbiology and virology | Model organisms | Pharmacology and toxicology

A C. elegans-based, whole animal, in vivo screen for the identification of antifungal compounds

Emmanouil Tampakakis1, Ikechukwu Okoli1 & Eleftherios Mylonakis1

Traditional antimicrobial screens focus on compounds that block the growth of microbial organisms. A new Caenorhabditis elegans-based bioassay can be used for the identification of antifungal compounds that are effective against Candida albicans. According to the protocol, adult nematodes are infected with C. albicans and moved to 96-well plates containing the tested compounds. In the presence of compounds with no antifungal activity, the fungus kills the worms and develops filaments that penetrate through the cuticle. In contrast to traditional screening methods and mammalian models, this facile, time-efficient and less costly assay allows the study of Candida cells in nonplanktonic form and may allow the concurrent evaluation of toxicity and antifungal activity and identify compounds that target virulence factors or modify host immune response. The screening assay takes about 5–6 d depending on the experimental design.

  1. Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Gray-Jackson 504, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA.

Correspondence to: Eleftherios Mylonakis1 e-mail:


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