Letters

  • Letter |

    Reactive oxygen species, most likely spawned from dietary-induced fatty acid β-oxidation, directly impact Plasmodium survival inside hepatocytes and sigificantly reduce liver infection.

    • Vanessa Zuzarte-Luís
    • , João Mello-Vieira
    • , Inês M. Marreiros
    • , Peter Liehl
    • , Ângelo F. Chora
    • , Céline K. Carret
    • , Tânia Carvalho
    •  & Maria M. Mota
  • Letter |

    The structure of the extended sheath–tube complex of the type VI secretion system from Vibrio cholerae elucidates the molecular mechanisms by which conformational changes in the sheath enable the inner tube to penetrate target cells.The structure of the extended sheath–tube complex of the type VI secretion system from Vibrio cholerae elucidates the molecular mechanisms by which conformational changes in the sheath enable the inner tube to penetrate target cells.

    • Jing Wang
    • , Maximilian Brackmann
    • , Daniel Castaño-Díez
    • , Mikhail Kudryashev
    • , Kenneth N. Goldie
    • , Timm Maier
    • , Henning Stahlberg
    •  & Marek Basler
  • Letter |

    Streptococcal para-amino benzoic acid enhances Porphyromonas gingivalis colonization while reducing virulence during polymicrobial oral infection.

    • Masae Kuboniwa
    • , John R. Houser
    • , Erik L. Hendrickson
    • , Qian Wang
    • , Samar A. Alghamdi
    • , Akito Sakanaka
    • , Daniel P. Miller
    • , Justin A. Hutcherson
    • , Tiansong Wang
    • , David A. C. Beck
    • , Marvin Whiteley
    • , Atsuo Amano
    • , Huizhi Wang
    • , Edward M. Marcotte
    • , Murray Hackett
    •  & Richard J. Lamont
  • Letter |

    Infection of the alga Emiliania huxleyi with its virus EhV results in the increased release of extracellular vesicles that impact viral decay and infection, suggesting that EhV exploits these extracellular vesicles for efficient viral infection during algal blooms.

    • Daniella Schatz
    • , Shilo Rosenwasser
    • , Sergey Malitsky
    • , Sharon G. Wolf
    • , Ester Feldmesser
    •  & Assaf Vardi
  • Letter |

    Recombinant proteins based on APOL1 and APOL3 can kill pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei subspecies, including a variant (rPpMUT) that is effective against T.b. gambiense infection in mice, suggesting that it may serve as a therapy against sleeping sickness.

    • Frédéric Fontaine
    • , Laurence Lecordier
    • , Gilles Vanwalleghem
    • , Pierrick Uzureau
    • , Nick Van Reet
    • , Martina Fontaine
    • , Patricia Tebabi
    • , Benoit Vanhollebeke
    • , Philippe Büscher
    • , David Pérez-Morga
    •  & Etienne Pays
  • Letter |

    LysM, the lysis protein of the Escherichia coli levivirus M, represents a new ‘protein antibiotic’ that interferes with the synthesis of peptidoglycan by inhibiting lipid II flipping.

    • Karthik R. Chamakura
    • , Lok-To Sham
    • , Rebecca M. Davis
    • , Lorna Min
    • , Hongbaek Cho
    • , Natividad Ruiz
    • , Thomas G. Bernhardt
    •  & Ry Young
  • Letter |

    Toxoplasma gondii uses its proteins RON2, RON4 and RON5 to recruit host proteins, including the ESCRT-I components ALIX and TSG101 to the moving junction, a multimolecular structure that enables invasion.

    • Amandine Guérin
    • , Rosa Milagros Corrales
    • , Michele L. Parker
    • , Mauld H. Lamarque
    • , Damien Jacot
    • , Hiba El Hajj
    • , Dominique Soldati-Favre
    • , Martin J. Boulanger
    •  & Maryse Lebrun
  • Letter |

    Metagenomic analyses reveal that microbial genomes undergo a community-wide transition in size and GC content across a narrow depth range, indicating that nutrient limitation is a major driver in marine microbial genomic and proteomic evolution.

    • Daniel R. Mende
    • , Jessica A. Bryant
    • , Frank O. Aylward
    • , John M. Eppley
    • , Torben Nielsen
    • , David M. Karl
    •  & Edward F. DeLong
  • Letter |

    Isolation of a cyanophage encoding photosystem I genes reveals that these are expressed during infection and inserted into host membranes, resulting in enhanced electron flow, and that phage carrying these genes are abundant in marine environments.

    • Svetlana Fridman
    • , José Flores-Uribe
    • , Shirley Larom
    • , Onit Alalouf
    • , Oded Liran
    • , Iftach Yacoby
    • , Faris Salama
    • , Benjamin Bailleul
    • , Fabrice Rappaport
    • , Tamar Ziv
    • , Itai Sharon
    • , Francisco M. Cornejo-Castillo
    • , Alon Philosof
    • , Christopher L. Dupont
    • , Pablo Sánchez
    • , Silvia G. Acinas
    • , Forest L. Rohwer
    • , Debbie Lindell
    •  & Oded Béjà
  • Letter |

    A virulent phage of Streptococcus thermophilus encodes an anti-CRISPR protein that is active against the CRISPR–Cas9 of multiple bacteria and inhibits the SpCas9 system commonly used for genome engineering.

    • Alexander P. Hynes
    • , Geneviève M. Rousseau
    • , Marie-Laurence Lemay
    • , Philippe Horvath
    • , Dennis A. Romero
    • , Christophe Fremaux
    •  & Sylvain Moineau
  • Letter |

    Whether phage genetic mosaicism generates a spectrum of diversity or discrete populations is unclear. Two phage evolutionary modes are described here that differ in the extent of horizontal gene transfer depending on host, lifestyle and genetic constitution

    • Travis N. Mavrich
    •  & Graham F. Hatfull
  • Letter |

    This study reports the structure of hRSV NS1, identifying unique regions that modulate host gene expression and contribute to inhibition of the IFN-I pathway and of dendritic cell maturation, pointing to new avenues of hRSV attenuation.

    • Srirupa Chatterjee
    • , Priya Luthra
    • , Ekaterina Esaulova
    • , Eugene Agapov
    • , Benjamin C. Yen
    • , Dominika M. Borek
    • , Megan R. Edwards
    • , Anuradha Mittal
    • , David S. Jordan
    • , Parameshwar Ramanan
    • , Martin L. Moore
    • , Rohit V. Pappu
    • , Michael J. Holtzman
    • , Maxim N. Artyomov
    • , Christopher F. Basler
    • , Gaya K. Amarasinghe
    •  & Daisy W. Leung
  • Letter |

    The undulating surface of mycobacterial cells contains wave troughs inherited from the (grand)mother cell that, combined with chromosome positioning, determine the site where cell division takes place.

    • Haig A. Eskandarian
    • , Pascal D. Odermatt
    • , Joëlle X. Y. Ven
    • , Mélanie T. M. Hannebelle
    • , Adrian P. Nievergelt
    • , Neeraj Dhar
    • , John D. McKinney
    •  & Georg E. Fantner
  • Letter |

    Metabolic labelling can be used to simultaneously tag peptidoglycan, lipopolysaccharide and capsular polysaccharide of live gut bacteria, and to label peptidoglycan in vivo, revealing host–bacteria interactions within the living mammalian host.

    • Jason E. Hudak
    • , David Alvarez
    • , Ashwin Skelly
    • , Ulrich H. von Andrian
    •  & Dennis L. Kasper
  • Letter |

    Disruption of a cysteine protease that localizes to the vacuolar compartment of Toxoplasma gondii shows that autophagy is required for the intracellular survival of the parasite during chronic infection.

    • Manlio Di Cristina
    • , Zhicheng Dou
    • , Matteo Lunghi
    • , Geetha Kannan
    • , My-Hang Huynh
    • , Olivia L. McGovern
    • , Tracey L. Schultz
    • , Aric J. Schultz
    • , Alyssa J. Miller
    • , Beth M. Hayes
    • , Wouter van der Linden
    • , Carla Emiliani
    • , Matthew Bogyo
    • , Sébastien Besteiro
    • , Isabelle Coppens
    •  & Vern B. Carruthers
  • Letter |

    This study identifies the proteins critical to fungal cellulosome assembly, characterizing the complex as evolutionarily chimeric — an independently evolved fungal complex co-opted catalytic activities from bacteria coexisting within the gut.

    • Charles H. Haitjema
    • , Sean P. Gilmore
    • , John K. Henske
    • , Kevin V. Solomon
    • , Randall de Groot
    • , Alan Kuo
    • , Stephen J. Mondo
    • , Asaf A. Salamov
    • , Kurt LaButti
    • , Zhiying Zhao
    • , Jennifer Chiniquy
    • , Kerrie Barry
    • , Heather M. Brewer
    • , Samuel O. Purvine
    • , Aaron T. Wright
    • , Matthieu Hainaut
    • , Brigitte Boxma
    • , Theo van Alen
    • , Johannes H. P. Hackstein
    • , Bernard Henrissat
    • , Scott E. Baker
    • , Igor V. Grigoriev
    •  & Michelle A. O'Malley
  • Letter |

    When faced with hypoxic conditions, Mycobacterium tuberculosis adapts its metabolism to generate intermediates reserved for re-initiation of peptidoglycan biosynthesis that can be used as soon as it is re-exposed to normoxia.

    • Hyungjin Eoh
    • , Zhe Wang
    • , Emilie Layre
    • , Poonam Rath
    • , Roxanne Morris
    • , D. Branch Moody
    •  & Kyu Y. Rhee
  • Letter |

    The S-layer structure of C. crescentus is revealed by combining the X-ray crystal structure of an S-layer protein and cryo-ET of cell stalks. The resulting model shows that the S-layer is porous and stabilized by calcium ions.

    • Tanmay A. M. Bharat
    • , Danguole Kureisaite-Ciziene
    • , Gail G. Hardy
    • , Ellen W. Yu
    • , Jessica M. Devant
    • , Wim J. H. Hagen
    • , Yves V. Brun
    • , John A. G. Briggs
    •  & Jan Löwe
  • Letter |

    Single-particle analysis of electron microscopy structures elucidates the mycobacterial ESX-5 type VII secretion system membrane complex.

    • Katherine S. H. Beckham
    • , Luciano Ciccarelli
    • , Catalin M. Bunduc
    • , Haydyn D. T. Mertens
    • , Roy Ummels
    • , Wolfgang Lugmayr
    • , Julia Mayr
    • , Mandy Rettel
    • , Mikhail M. Savitski
    • , Dmitri I. Svergun
    • , Wilbert Bitter
    • , Matthias Wilmanns
    • , Thomas C. Marlovits
    • , Annabel H. A. Parret
    •  & Edith N. G. Houben
  • Letter |

    Diversity-generating retroelements are abundant in the reduced genomes of bacteria and archaea belonging to the CPR and DPANN phyla, driving hypervariability on proteins involved in signalling, transcriptional regulation, attachment and defence.

    • Blair G. Paul
    • , David Burstein
    • , Cindy J. Castelle
    • , Sumit Handa
    • , Diego Arambula
    • , Elizabeth Czornyj
    • , Brian C. Thomas
    • , Partho Ghosh
    • , Jeff F. Miller
    • , Jillian F. Banfield
    •  & David L. Valentine
  • Letter |

    Crystal structures of the Argonaute protein from the archaeon Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (MjAgo) in its apo state and bound to a guide DNA elucidate the molecular mechanisms that drive DNA-guided DNA silencing in Archaea.

    • Sarah Willkomm
    • , Christine A. Oellig
    • , Adrian Zander
    • , Tobias Restle
    • , Ronan Keegan
    • , Dina Grohmann
    •  & Sabine Schneider