Letters

  • Letter |

    Whether phage genetic mosaicism generates a spectrum of diversity or discrete populations is unclear. Two phage evolutionary modes are described here that differ in the extent of horizontal gene transfer depending on host, lifestyle and genetic constitution

    • Travis N. Mavrich
    •  & Graham F. Hatfull
  • Letter |

    This study reports the structure of hRSV NS1, identifying unique regions that modulate host gene expression and contribute to inhibition of the IFN-I pathway and of dendritic cell maturation, pointing to new avenues of hRSV attenuation.

    • Srirupa Chatterjee
    • , Priya Luthra
    • , Ekaterina Esaulova
    • , Eugene Agapov
    • , Benjamin C. Yen
    • , Dominika M. Borek
    • , Megan R. Edwards
    • , Anuradha Mittal
    • , David S. Jordan
    • , Parameshwar Ramanan
    • , Martin L. Moore
    • , Rohit V. Pappu
    • , Michael J. Holtzman
    • , Maxim N. Artyomov
    • , Christopher F. Basler
    • , Gaya K. Amarasinghe
    •  & Daisy W. Leung
  • Letter |

    The undulating surface of mycobacterial cells contains wave troughs inherited from the (grand)mother cell that, combined with chromosome positioning, determine the site where cell division takes place.

    • Haig A. Eskandarian
    • , Pascal D. Odermatt
    • , Joëlle X. Y. Ven
    • , Mélanie T. M. Hannebelle
    • , Adrian P. Nievergelt
    • , Neeraj Dhar
    • , John D. McKinney
    •  & Georg E. Fantner
  • Letter |

    Metabolic labelling can be used to simultaneously tag peptidoglycan, lipopolysaccharide and capsular polysaccharide of live gut bacteria, and to label peptidoglycan in vivo, revealing host–bacteria interactions within the living mammalian host.

    • Jason E. Hudak
    • , David Alvarez
    • , Ashwin Skelly
    • , Ulrich H. von Andrian
    •  & Dennis L. Kasper
  • Letter |

    Disruption of a cysteine protease that localizes to the vacuolar compartment of Toxoplasma gondii shows that autophagy is required for the intracellular survival of the parasite during chronic infection.

    • Manlio Di Cristina
    • , Zhicheng Dou
    • , Matteo Lunghi
    • , Geetha Kannan
    • , My-Hang Huynh
    • , Olivia L. McGovern
    • , Tracey L. Schultz
    • , Aric J. Schultz
    • , Alyssa J. Miller
    • , Beth M. Hayes
    • , Wouter van der Linden
    • , Carla Emiliani
    • , Matthew Bogyo
    • , Sébastien Besteiro
    • , Isabelle Coppens
    •  & Vern B. Carruthers
  • Letter |

    This study identifies the proteins critical to fungal cellulosome assembly, characterizing the complex as evolutionarily chimeric — an independently evolved fungal complex co-opted catalytic activities from bacteria coexisting within the gut.

    • Charles H. Haitjema
    • , Sean P. Gilmore
    • , John K. Henske
    • , Kevin V. Solomon
    • , Randall de Groot
    • , Alan Kuo
    • , Stephen J. Mondo
    • , Asaf A. Salamov
    • , Kurt LaButti
    • , Zhiying Zhao
    • , Jennifer Chiniquy
    • , Kerrie Barry
    • , Heather M. Brewer
    • , Samuel O. Purvine
    • , Aaron T. Wright
    • , Matthieu Hainaut
    • , Brigitte Boxma
    • , Theo van Alen
    • , Johannes H. P. Hackstein
    • , Bernard Henrissat
    • , Scott E. Baker
    • , Igor V. Grigoriev
    •  & Michelle A. O'Malley
  • Letter |

    When faced with hypoxic conditions, Mycobacterium tuberculosis adapts its metabolism to generate intermediates reserved for re-initiation of peptidoglycan biosynthesis that can be used as soon as it is re-exposed to normoxia.

    • Hyungjin Eoh
    • , Zhe Wang
    • , Emilie Layre
    • , Poonam Rath
    • , Roxanne Morris
    • , D. Branch Moody
    •  & Kyu Y. Rhee
  • Letter |

    The S-layer structure of C. crescentus is revealed by combining the X-ray crystal structure of an S-layer protein and cryo-ET of cell stalks. The resulting model shows that the S-layer is porous and stabilized by calcium ions.

    • Tanmay A. M. Bharat
    • , Danguole Kureisaite-Ciziene
    • , Gail G. Hardy
    • , Ellen W. Yu
    • , Jessica M. Devant
    • , Wim J. H. Hagen
    • , Yves V. Brun
    • , John A. G. Briggs
    •  & Jan Löwe
  • Letter |

    Single-particle analysis of electron microscopy structures elucidates the mycobacterial ESX-5 type VII secretion system membrane complex.

    • Katherine S. H. Beckham
    • , Luciano Ciccarelli
    • , Catalin M. Bunduc
    • , Haydyn D. T. Mertens
    • , Roy Ummels
    • , Wolfgang Lugmayr
    • , Julia Mayr
    • , Mandy Rettel
    • , Mikhail M. Savitski
    • , Dmitri I. Svergun
    • , Wilbert Bitter
    • , Matthias Wilmanns
    • , Thomas C. Marlovits
    • , Annabel H. A. Parret
    •  & Edith N. G. Houben
  • Letter |

    Diversity-generating retroelements are abundant in the reduced genomes of bacteria and archaea belonging to the CPR and DPANN phyla, driving hypervariability on proteins involved in signalling, transcriptional regulation, attachment and defence.

    • Blair G. Paul
    • , David Burstein
    • , Cindy J. Castelle
    • , Sumit Handa
    • , Diego Arambula
    • , Elizabeth Czornyj
    • , Brian C. Thomas
    • , Partho Ghosh
    • , Jeff F. Miller
    • , Jillian F. Banfield
    •  & David L. Valentine
  • Letter |

    Crystal structures of the Argonaute protein from the archaeon Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (MjAgo) in its apo state and bound to a guide DNA elucidate the molecular mechanisms that drive DNA-guided DNA silencing in Archaea.

    • Sarah Willkomm
    • , Christine A. Oellig
    • , Adrian Zander
    • , Tobias Restle
    • , Ronan Keegan
    • , Dina Grohmann
    •  & Sabine Schneider
  • Letter |

    Rice dwarf virus capsid protein binds to the outer membrane protein of the obligate symbiont bacterium Sulcia, allowing the virus to hijack the oocyte entry path in rice leafhopper vectors for transovarial transmission.

    • Dongsheng Jia
    • , Qianzhuo Mao
    • , Yong Chen
    • , Yuyan Liu
    • , Qian Chen
    • , Wei Wu
    • , Xiaofeng Zhang
    • , Hongyan Chen
    • , Yi Li
    •  & Taiyun Wei
  • Letter |

    A screen for outer-membrane permeating compounds finds that the clinically approved antiprotozoal drug pentamidine sensitizes drug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens to new antibiotic classes.

    • Jonathan M. Stokes
    • , Craig R. MacNair
    • , Bushra Ilyas
    • , Shawn French
    • , Jean-Philippe Côté
    • , Catrien Bouwman
    • , Maya A. Farha
    • , Arthur O. Sieron
    • , Chris Whitfield
    • , Brian K. Coombes
    •  & Eric D. Brown
  • Letter |

    Plasmodium falciparum kinase PfCRK4 is a key regulator of DNA replication in schizonts, required both during the intraerythrocytic blood stage of malaria infection and for transmission.

    • Markus Ganter
    • , Jonathan M. Goldberg
    • , Jeffrey D. Dvorin
    • , Joao A. Paulo
    • , Jonas G. King
    • , Abhai K. Tripathi
    • , Aditya S. Paul
    • , Jing Yang
    • , Isabelle Coppens
    • , Rays H. Y. Jiang
    • , Brendan Elsworth
    • , David A. Baker
    • , Rhoel R. Dinglasan
    • , Steven P. Gygi
    •  & Manoj T. Duraisingh
  • Letter |

    Marine heterotrophic bacteria produce the signalling molecule dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) via the methyltransferase gene dsyB, implicating bacteria as contributors to the oceanic DMSP pool, in addition to macroalgae and phytoplankton.

    • Andrew R. J. Curson
    • , Ji Liu
    • , Ana Bermejo Martínez
    • , Robert T. Green
    • , Yohan Chan
    • , Ornella Carrión
    • , Beth T. Williams
    • , Sheng-Hui Zhang
    • , Gui-Peng Yang
    • , Philip C. Bulman Page
    • , Xiao-Hua Zhang
    •  & Jonathan D. Todd
  • Letter |

    Epidemiological sampling finds extensive colistin and carbapenem resistance throughout Chinese poultry production-related sites.

    • Yang Wang
    • , Rongmin Zhang
    • , Jiyun Li
    • , Zuowei Wu
    • , Wenjuan Yin
    • , Stefan Schwarz
    • , Jonathan M. Tyrrell
    • , Yongjun Zheng
    • , Shaolin Wang
    • , Zhangqi Shen
    • , Zhihai Liu
    • , Jianye Liu
    • , Lei Lei
    • , Mei Li
    • , Qidi Zhang
    • , Congming Wu
    • , Qijing Zhang
    • , Yongning Wu
    • , Timothy R. Walsh
    •  & Jianzhong Shen
  • Letter |

    Examination of the structural basis for cross-reactive antibody binding to RSV and HMPV F protein by two related, independently isolated antibodies indicates that both antibodies interact with a conserved surface that could guide the emergence of cross-reactivity.

    • Xiaolin Wen
    • , Jarrod J. Mousa
    • , John T. Bates
    • , Robert A. Lamb
    • , James E. Crowe Jr
    •  & Theodore S. Jardetzky
  • Letter |

    Whole genome sequencing provides a picture of Burkholderia pseudomallei dissemination and evolution.

    • Claire Chewapreecha
    • , Matthew T. G. Holden
    • , Minna Vehkala
    • , Niko Välimäki
    • , Zhirong Yang
    • , Simon R. Harris
    • , Alison E. Mather
    • , Apichai Tuanyok
    • , Birgit De Smet
    • , Simon Le Hello
    • , Chantal Bizet
    • , Mark Mayo
    • , Vanaporn Wuthiekanun
    • , Direk Limmathurotsakul
    • , Rattanaphone Phetsouvanh
    • , Brian G. Spratt
    • , Jukka Corander
    • , Paul Keim
    • , Gordon Dougan
    • , David A. B. Dance
    • , Bart J. Currie
    • , Julian Parkhill
    •  & Sharon J. Peacock
  • Letter |

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli EspL is a cysteine protease that cleaves RHIM-containing proteins and blocks inflammasome signalling during infection.

    • Jaclyn S. Pearson
    • , Cristina Giogha
    • , Sabrina Mühlen
    • , Ueli Nachbur
    • , Chi L. L. Pham
    • , Ying Zhang
    • , Joanne M. Hildebrand
    • , Clare V. Oates
    • , Tania Wong Fok Lung
    • , Danielle Ingle
    • , Laura F. Dagley
    • , Aleksandra Bankovacki
    • , Emma J. Petrie
    • , Gunnar N. Schroeder
    • , Valerie F. Crepin
    • , Gad Frankel
    • , Seth L. Masters
    • , James Vince
    • , James M. Murphy
    • , Margaret Sunde
    • , Andrew I. Webb
    • , John Silke
    •  & Elizabeth L. Hartland
  • Letter |

    Viability polymerase chain reaction based on the photoreactive DNA-intercalating dye propidium monoazide revealed that on average 40% of prokaryotic and fungal DNA in soil is extracellular, or from cells no longer intact, confounding estimates of richness and taxon relative abundance.

    • Paul Carini
    • , Patrick J. Marsden
    • , Jonathan W. Leff
    • , Emily E. Morgan
    • , Michael S. Strickland
    •  & Noah Fierer