FIGURE 3. Meniscus bridge, critical field strength and critical cone angle.

From the following article:

Non-coalescence of oppositely charged drops

W. D. Ristenpart, J. C. Bird, A. Belmonte, F. Dollar & H. A. Stone

Nature 461, 377-380(17 September 2009)



a, High-magnification, high speed image of the temporary meniscus bridge between two bouncing water drops (1 M KCl) in silicone oil (1,000 cSt). Dark regions are water, the brighter areas within the water are reflections. E = 200 V mm-1; scale bar, 0.1 mm. b, Definition sketch of the meniscus bridge. c, The critical electric force as a function of salt concentration for 2-microl water droplets in 1,000 cSt silicone oil. Lines are to guide the eye. Error bars indicate the range of observed transitions between bouncing and coalescence. d, The cone angle at the time of contact between water drops in air as a function of applied potential (Deltaphi). Open symbols denote coalescence; filled symbols denote bouncing. Circles, deionized water (4 microS cm-1); squares, 1 mM KCl (163 microS cm-1).

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