Articles

  • Article |

    Accessory loci are shown to have similar frequencies in diverse Streptococcus pneumoniae populations, suggesting negative frequency-dependent selection drives post-vaccination population restructuring.

    • Jukka Corander
    • , Christophe Fraser
    • , Michael U. Gutmann
    • , Brian Arnold
    • , William P. Hanage
    • , Stephen D. Bentley
    • , Marc Lipsitch
    •  & Nicholas J. Croucher
  • Article |

    The structuring of soil into distinct aggregates is a key element in biogeochemical cycling. Here, a meta-analysis reveals a strong positive effect of soil biota on soil aggregation, with the largest influence coming from bacteria and fungi.

    • Anika Lehmann
    • , Weishuang Zheng
    •  & Matthias C. Rillig
  • Article |

    Cetaceans show a similar increase in brain size as is seen in human evolution. Here, this increase is shown to be linked to an expansion in the social and ecological niche.

    • Kieran C. R. Fox
    • , Michael Muthukrishna
    •  & Susanne Shultz
  • Article |

    4,000-year-old phytoliths (plant microfossils) from the Monte Castelo shell mound (southwestern Amazonia) provide evidence for an independent rice domestication event in the Americas.

    • Lautaro Hilbert
    • , Eduardo Góes Neves
    • , Francisco Pugliese
    • , Bronwen S. Whitney
    • , Myrtle Shock
    • , Elizabeth Veasey
    • , Carlos Augusto Zimpel
    •  & José Iriarte
  • Article |

    The global distribution of nearly all extant reptile species reveals richness patterns that differ spatially from that of other taxa. Conservation prioritization should specifically consider reptile distributions, particularly lizards and turtles.

    • Uri Roll
    • , Anat Feldman
    • , Maria Novosolov
    • , Allen Allison
    • , Aaron M. Bauer
    • , Rodolphe Bernard
    • , Monika Böhm
    • , Fernando Castro-Herrera
    • , Laurent Chirio
    • , Ben Collen
    • , Guarino R. Colli
    • , Lital Dabool
    • , Indraneil Das
    • , Tiffany M. Doan
    • , Lee L. Grismer
    • , Marinus Hoogmoed
    • , Yuval Itescu
    • , Fred Kraus
    • , Matthew LeBreton
    • , Amir Lewin
    • , Marcio Martins
    • , Erez Maza
    • , Danny Meirte
    • , Zoltán T. Nagy
    • , Cristiano de C. Nogueira
    • , Olivier S. G. Pauwels
    • , Daniel Pincheira-Donoso
    • , Gary D. Powney
    • , Roberto Sindaco
    • , Oliver J. S. Tallowin
    • , Omar Torres-Carvajal
    • , Jean-François Trape
    • , Enav Vidan
    • , Peter Uetz
    • , Philipp Wagner
    • , Yuezhao Wang
    • , C. David L. Orme
    • , Richard Grenyer
    •  & Shai Meiri
  • Article |

    Newly sequenced transcriptomes are combined with existing data to establish Ctenophora as the sister group to all other animals and suggest a radiation around 350 Ma as well as multiple transitions from a pelagic to a benthic lifestyle.

    • Nathan V. Whelan
    • , Kevin M. Kocot
    • , Tatiana P. Moroz
    • , Krishanu Mukherjee
    • , Peter Williams
    • , Gustav Paulay
    • , Leonid L. Moroz
    •  & Kenneth M. Halanych
  • Article |

    Here the concept of climate-change velocity is used to explore whether northward displacement of vegetation will keep pace with temperature under climate change. Remote sensing data suggest it will not, possibly due to resource availability.

    • Mengtian Huang
    • , Shilong Piao
    • , Ivan A. Janssens
    • , Zaichun Zhu
    • , Tao Wang
    • , Donghai Wu
    • , Philippe Ciais
    • , Ranga B. Myneni
    • , Marc Peaucelle
    • , Shushi Peng
    • , Hui Yang
    •  & Josep Peñuelas
  • Article |

    The reverse Krebs cycle is a potential primordial anabolic pathway central to biochemistry. Here, the authors show that more than half of the cycle can be promoted by metals and metal ions without enzymes.

    • Kamila B. Muchowska
    • , Sreejith J. Varma
    • , Elodie Chevallot-Beroux
    • , Lucas Lethuillier-Karl
    • , Guang Li
    •  & Joseph Moran
  • Article |

    The evolution of appendicular muscles in bony fishes and cartilaginous fishes remains unclear. Here, the authors show that migratory muscle precursor cells, known from bony fishes, are also present in catsharks.

    • Eri Okamoto
    • , Rie Kusakabe
    • , Shigehiro Kuraku
    • , Susumu Hyodo
    • , Alexandre Robert-Moreno
    • , Koh Onimaru
    • , James Sharpe
    • , Shigeru Kuratani
    •  & Mikiko Tanaka
  • Article |

    Basic anatomical patterns are conserved in chordates. Here, the authors show mid-embryonic conservation during vertebrates’ development and evolutionary constraints introduced by recruitment of mid-embryonic programmes to later stages of development.

    • Haiyang Hu
    • , Masahiro Uesaka
    • , Song Guo
    • , Kotaro Shimai
    • , Tsai-Ming Lu
    • , Fang Li
    • , Satoko Fujimoto
    • , Masato Ishikawa
    • , Shiping Liu
    • , Yohei Sasagawa
    • , Guojie Zhang
    • , Shigeru Kuratani
    • , Jr-Kai Yu
    • , Takehiro G. Kusakabe
    • , Philipp Khaitovich
    •  & Naoki Irie
  • Article | | open

    Genome of the tobacco cutworm, Spodoptera litura, which is one of the most widespread and destructive agricultural pests in tropical and subtropical Asia.

    • Tingcai Cheng
    • , Jiaqi Wu
    • , Yuqian Wu
    • , Rajendra V. Chilukuri
    • , Lihua Huang
    • , Kohji Yamamoto
    • , Li Feng
    • , Wanshun Li
    • , Zhiwei Chen
    • , Huizhen Guo
    • , Jianqiu Liu
    • , Shenglong Li
    • , Xiaoxiao Wang
    • , Li Peng
    • , Duolian Liu
    • , Youbing Guo
    • , Bohua Fu
    • , Zhiqing Li
    • , Chun Liu
    • , Yuhui Chen
    • , Archana Tomar
    • , Frederique Hilliou
    • , Nicolas Montagné
    • , Emmanuelle Jacquin-Joly
    • , Emmanuelle d’Alençon
    • , Rakesh K. Seth
    • , Raj K. Bhatnagar
    • , Akiya Jouraku
    • , Takahiro Shiotsuki
    • , Keiko Kadono-Okuda
    • , Amornrat Promboon
    • , Guy Smagghe
    • , Kallare P. Arunkumar
    • , Hirohisa Kishino
    • , Marian R. Goldsmith
    • , Qili Feng
    • , Qingyou Xia
    •  & Kazuei Mita
  • Article |

    Theory predicts that competing species should fill niche space, but empirical evidence is lacking. Here, the authors reconcile theory and data by showing that niche packing depends on whether regulating factors are substitutable or not.

    • Ben Ashby
    • , Eleanor Watkins
    • , José Lourenço
    • , Sunetra Gupta
    •  & Kevin R. Foster
  • Article |

    Ecosystem accounts quantify trade-offs between the economy and the environment. Here, the authors apply this approach to a regional case study of native forest use to show how it can be used to inform policy about complex land management decisions.

    • Heather Keith
    • , Michael Vardon
    • , John A. Stein
    • , Janet L. Stein
    •  & David Lindenmayer
  • Article |

    Ecological and evolutionary processes shape the phenotypic composition of populations. Mesocosm experiments with threespine sticklebacks show how the interactions between phenotype, population density and environment determine evolutionary trajectories.

    • Rebecca J. Best
    • , Jaime M. Anaya-Rojas
    • , Miguel C. Leal
    • , Dominik W. Schmid
    • , Ole Seehausen
    •  & Blake Matthews
  • Article |

    Trace fossils from the Ediacaran–Cambrian transition of Brazil are interpreted as the remains of burrows made by a nematoid-like organism moving through sediment: these organisms are interpreted as the oldest known fossil meiofaunal bilaterians.

    • Luke A. Parry
    • , Paulo C. Boggiani
    • , Daniel J. Condon
    • , Russell J. Garwood
    • , Juliana de M. Leme
    • , Duncan McIlroy
    • , Martin D. Brasier
    • , Ricardo Trindade
    • , Ginaldo A. C. Campanha
    • , Mírian L. A. F. Pacheco
    • , Cleber Q. C. Diniz
    •  & Alexander G. Liu
  • Article |

    The cnidarian endoderm has been considered homologous to the bilaterian endoderm and mesoderm. Here, a gut-like ectoderm is revealed in a sea anemone, corresponding to the bilaterian endoderm, supporting an alternative model of germ layer homology.

    • Patrick R. H. Steinmetz
    • , Andy Aman
    • , Johanna E. M. Kraus
    •  & Ulrich Technau
  • Article |

    A Middle–Late Triassic tetrapod assemblage from South America reveals a series of faunal turnovers prior to the rise of dinosaurs in the region.

    • Martín D. Ezcurra
    • , Lucas E. Fiorelli
    • , Agustín G. Martinelli
    • , Sebastián Rocher
    • , M. Belén von Baczko
    • , Miguel Ezpeleta
    • , Jeremías R. A. Taborda
    • , E. Martín Hechenleitner
    • , M. Jimena Trotteyn
    •  & Julia B. Desojo