Figure 9 - Protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated contraction of LES circular muscle.

From the following article

Signal transduction in lower esophageal sphincter circular muscle

Piero Biancani and Karen M. Harnett

GI Motility online (2006)



PKCbeta-mediated contraction may depend on activation of at least two pathways: an ERK1/ERK2 MAP kinase pathway linked to the Ca-independent integrin-linked kinase (ILK), and a 27-kd heat shock protein (HSP27)-p38 kinase pathway linked to the Ca-independent zipper interacting protein (ZIP)-like or ZIP-kinase. ILK, ZIP-like, or ZIP kinase may directly phosphorylate myosin light chains (MLC20), and they may phosphorylate the targeting subunit of myosin phosphatase (MYPT1) or CPI-17, inhibiting phosphatase activity. CPI-17 (17-kd PKC-dependent phosphatase inhibitor) may also be directly phosphorylated by PKC. (Source: Harnett et al.,3 with permission from the American Physiological Society.)

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