Regular Article | Open

HPV types and cofactors causing cervical cancer in Peru

  • British Journal of Cancer volume 85, pages 966971 (05 October 2001)
  • doi:10.1054/bjoc.2001.1948
  • Download Citation
Received:
Revised:
Accepted:
Published online:

Abstract

We conducted a hospital-based case-control study in Peru of 198 women with histologically confirmed cervical cancer (173 squamous cell carcinomas and 25 cases of adenocarcinoma/adenosquamous carcinoma) and 196 control women. Information on risk factors was obtained by personal interview. Using PCR-based assays on exfoliated cervical cells and biopsy specimens, HPV DNA was detected in 95.3% of women with squamous cell carcinoma and in 92.0% of women with adenocarcinoma/adenosquamous carcinoma compared with 17.7% in control women. The age-adjusted odds ratio was 116.0 (95% Cl = 48.6–276.0) for squamous cell carcinoma and 51.4 (95% Cl = 11.4–232.0) for adenocarcinoma/adenosquamous carcinoma. The commonest types in women with cervical cancer were HPV 16, 18, 31, 52 and 35. The association with the various HPV types was equally strong for the two most common types (HPV 16 and 18) as for the other less common types. In addition to HPV, long-term use of oral contraceptives and smoking were associated with an increased risk. HPV is the main cause of both squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma in Peruvian women. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com

Change history

  • Corrected online 16 November 2011

References

  1. , , , , and (1993) Human papillomavirus and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade III/carcinoma in situ: a case-control study in Spain and Colombia. Cancer Epidemiol, Biom Prev 2: 415–422

  2. , , , , , and (1994) What is relevant in cervical carcinogenesis other than HPV?. Papillomavirus in Human Pathology, Monsonego JChallenges of Modern Medicine 9: 173–181

  3. and (1980) Statistical methods in cancer research 1, The analysis of case-control studies (IARC Scientific Publications No 32). International Agency for Research on Cancer: Lyon

  4. , , , , and (1998) The viral origin of cervical cancer in Rabat, Morocco. Int J Cancer 75: 546–555

  5. , , , , and (1998) Risk factors for cervical cancer in Thailand: a case-control study. J Natl Cancer Inst 90: 50–57

  6. and (1999) Vaccination against infectious agents associated with human cancer. Cancer Surveys 33: 355–381

  7. , , , , , and (2000) Sexual behaviour and smoking as determinants of cervical HPV infection and of CIN3 among those infected: a case-control study nested within the Manchester cohort. Br J Cancer 88: 1565–1572

  8. , , , , and (1994) Analysis of cytomorphologically abnormal cervical scrapes for the presence of 27 mucosotropic human papillomavirus genotypes using polymerase chain reaction. Int J Cancer 56: 802–806

  9. , , , , and (1994) Human papillomavirus and invasive cervical cancer in Brazil. Br J Cancer 69: 114–119

  10. Family Planning Programme (1997) National Plan for Gynaecological Cancer Prevention, unpublished report, Ministry of Health: Lima, Peru

  11. and (1988) Clustal: a package for performing sequence alignment on a microcomputer. Gene 73: 237–244

  12. IARC (1998) Globocan I, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide (IARC Cancer Base No 3). International Agency for Research on Cancer: Lyon

  13. , , , , and (1995) Group-specific differentiation between high- and low-risk human papillomavirus genotypes by general primer-mediated PCR and two cocktails of oligonucleotide probes. J Clin Microbiol 33: 901–905

  14. , , , , and (1999) Oral contraceptives as risk factors for cervical adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 8: 1079–1085

  15. , and (1993) Multiple human papillomavirus type 16 glucocorticoid response elements functional for transformation, transient expression, and DNA-protein interactions. J Virol 67: 5656–5659

  16. , , , , and (1992) The causal link between human papillomavirus and invasive cervical cancer: a population-based case-control study in Colombia and Spain. Int J Cancer 52: 743–749

  17. , , , , , and (1993) Risk factors for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade III/carcinoma in situ in Spain and Colombia. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 2: 423–431

  18. , , , , and (1998) The causes of cervical cancer in the Philippines: a case-control study. J Natl Cancer Inst 90: 43–49

  19. , , , , and (2000) Human papillomavirus infection and invasive cervical cancer in Paraguay. Int J Cancer 85: 486–491

  20. , , , , and (2000) HPV DNA testing in cervical cancer screening. Results from women in a high-risk province of Costa Rica. J Am Med Assoc 283: 87–93

  21. and (1998) Smoking and cervical neoplasia: a review of the evidence. J Epidemiol Biostat 3: 229–256

  22. , , , , and (1999) Human papillomavirus, a necessary cause of invasive cervical cancer worldwide. J Pathol 189: 12–19

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

  1. Instituto de Enfermedades Neoplásicas ‘Dr Eduardo Cáceres Graziani', Av. Angamos Este 2520, Lima 34, Peru

    • C Santos
    • , M Alvarez
    • , C Velarde
    •  & O Galdos
  2. International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 Cours Albert Thomas, Lyon cédex 08 F-69372, France

    • N Muñoz
  3. IARC, University of Bielefeld, PO Box 100131, Bielefeld D-33501, Germany

    • S Klug
  4. Maes-Heller Cancer Research Centre, Av. Angamos Este 2520, Lima 34, Peru

    • M Almonte
    • , I Guerrero
    •  & E Caceres
  5. María Auxiliadora' General Hospital, Lima, Peru

    • M Castillo
  6. Free University Hospital, Postbus 7057, Amsterdam, MB, NL-1007 The Netherlands

    • J Walboomers
    •  & C Meijer

Authors

  1. Search for C Santos in:

  2. Search for N Muñoz in:

  3. Search for S Klug in:

  4. Search for M Almonte in:

  5. Search for I Guerrero in:

  6. Search for M Alvarez in:

  7. Search for C Velarde in:

  8. Search for O Galdos in:

  9. Search for M Castillo in:

  10. Search for J Walboomers in:

  11. Search for C Meijer in:

  12. Search for E Caceres in:

Creative Commons BY-NC-SAFrom twelve months after its original publication, this work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/