Thank you for visiting nature.com. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain
the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in
Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles
T cells are white blood cells that are important for adaptive immunity. They have unique cell surface receptors that are generated by randomly assorting genes. These receptors allow T cells to sense and respond to diverse types of infection.
Luster and colleagues show that Treg cells that reside in lung mucosa can respond to IL-33 upon allergen exposure and suppress innate cell responses. IL-33-activated ST2+ Treg cells secrete IL-35, which suppresses IL-17 production by γδ T cells and lessens eosinophil recruitment into the lung.
After activation, conventional T cells undergo metabolic reprogramming. de Kivit et al. show that in human thymic regulatory T cells, TNFR2 stimulation promotes a glycolytic switch with a preferential glucose-derived carbon flux into the TCA cycle to support suppressive functions.
Immune activating antibodies that target co-stimulatory molecules have altered the cancer therapy landscape. Here, Walker and colleagues discuss therapies — particularly those that target molecules in the same families as CTLA4 and PD1 or TNF receptor — that inhibit the immune system and are being investigated for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. They describe the future opportunities and challenges for the field, including combination approaches.
A transcription factor network triggered by Notch signalling in the thymus guides proliferating, multipotent progenitor cells into the T cell pathway. This Review describes how these factors work to establish regulatory target specificity, epigenomic impact and irreversibility for T cell identity.
Intestinal IL-22 has important regulatory effects on the barrier and intestinal diseases and its production is controlled by the intestinal microbiome. Here the authors show that intestinal immune cell production of IL-22 is regulated by short chain fatty acids via an aryl hydrocarbon receptor and HIF1α-mediated mechanism that protects mice from intestinal inflammation.
Two studies reveal a role for the transcriptional regulator BATF3 as a T cell–intrinsic factor mediating effective memory responses. This finding opens future avenues of investigation and opportunities to enhance cellular immunotherapy.
The activation of the Notch4–Wnt–GDF15 axis in induced regulatory T (Treg cells) dampens their immunoregulatory function and turns them into TH2 and TH17 cytokine producers, allowing them to maintain ongoing allergic asthma.
Cytokines are well-known mediators of the immune response, but, recently, pleiotropic roles in the central nervous system have started to be uncovered. It is now shown that IL-17 directly modulates fear behavior in mice.
Comprehensive mapping reveals that functional CD4+ and CD8+ T cells targeting multiple regions of SARS-CoV-2 are maintained in the resolution phase of both mild and severe COVID-19, and their magnitude correlates with the antibody response.
Costimulatory blockade via the CTLA-4–Ig fusion protein abatacept is beneficial in patients with early-onset type 1 diabetes, but some individuals benefit more than others. A new study reports that the pretreatment abundance of T follicular helper (TFH) cells could predict clinical responses to abatacept.