Diabetes

Diabetes describes a group of metabolic diseases characterized by high blood sugar levels. Diabetes can be caused by the pancreas not producing insulin (type 1 diabetes) or by insulin resistance (cells do not respond to insulin; type 2 diabetes).

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News and Comment

  • Comments and Opinion |

    Dipeptidylpeptidase (DPP)-4 is a key regulator of the incretin system. For several years DPP-4 inhibitors in addition to GLP-1 analogues are of major importance in the clinical management of obesity and type 2 diabetes. DPP-4 is also known as CD26 and represents a membrane bound protease on the surface of several eukaryotic cell types. Of interest, DPP-4, like ACE2, has been shown to serve as a binding partner for corona-like viruses to enter host immune cells. Since metabolic diseases are major risk factors for the present COVID-19 pandemic, we examined circulating soluble DPP-4 serum concentrations in patients suffering from severe COVID-19 infection and in healthy human subjects in a case control design. In this analysis sDPP-4 levels were significantly lower in COVID-19 patients compared to controls (242.70 ± 202.12 ng/mL versus 497.70 ± 188.13 ng/mL, p = 0.02). We also examined sDPP-4 serum concentrations in patients suffering from sepsis not due to corona-like viruses. In these subjects, sDPP-4 levels were not different compared to healthy case controls (p = 0.14), which might suggest the decrease of sDPP-4 to be specific for corona-like virus infections. Currently, most data point towards membrane bound ACE2 in contrast to DPP-4 as the major binding partner for COVID-19 internalization into host immune cells. However, the finding that the circulating soluble form of DPP-4 is reduced in hospitalized patients might suggest a regulatory role for both, ACE and DPP-4, in COVID-19 infections, especially since obesity and type 2 diabetes are major risk factor for a severe course of the disease

    • Kristina Schlicht
    • , Nathalie Rohmann
    • , Corinna Geisler
    • , Tim Hollstein
    • , Carina Knappe
    • , Katharina Hartmann
    • , Jeanette Schwarz
    • , Florian Tran
    • , Domagoj Schunk
    • , Ralf Junker
    • , Thomas Bahmer
    • , Philip Rosenstiel
    • , Dominik Schulte
    • , Kathrin Türk
    • , Andre Franke
    • , Stefan Schreiber
    •  & Matthias Laudes
  • Comments and Opinion
    | Open Access

    With 4 billion people in lockdown in the world, COVID-19 outbreak may result in excessive sedentary time, especially in the population of vulnerable and disabled subjects. In many chronic disorders and diseases including type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension, cardiovascular and immune beneficial effects of exercise interventions should be reminded.

    • Isley Jesus
    • , Valentin Vanhee
    • , Therese B. Deramaudt
    •  & Marcel Bonay
  • News and Views |

    Islet of Langerhans transplantation as a cell therapy for type 1 diabetes faces obstacles that have prevented full and lasting engraftment in the liver, the currently preferred implantation site in clinical practice. Yu and colleagues circumvent these issues and achieve stable diabetes reversal by transplanting islets encapsulated in a simple collagen-based matrix into the more accessible subcutaneous space.

    • Thierry Berney
    •  & Ekaterine Berishvili
  • Comments and Opinion |

    In 2019, we published a Review on the relevance of gut microbial metabolites in obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Here, we highlight the importance of the balance between colonic proteolytic and saccharolytic metabolite production for metabolic health and the need to focus on more subgroup-based or personalized nutritional approaches.

    • Emanuel E. Canfora
    •  & Ellen E. Blaak